Teratomas (All Locations)

Living reference work entry


Teratomas are the most common form of germ cell tumors in children. Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is the most common teratoma presenting at birth. Fetuses with “high risk” SCT have a mortality rate of 40%–50%. While fetal surgery may benefit selected fetuses prior to 27 weeks gestation, many fetuses die due to consequences of rapid growth after 27 weeks. In the absence of fetal hydrops prior to 27 weeks or tumor rupture in utero, early delivery is associated with favorable outcomes. In the neonate with a large teratoma, life-threatening bleeding is a major complication during tumor excision. Laparoscopic median sacral artery division before SCT excision offers a safe approach to reduce the risk of major hemorrhage during surgery. As regards long-term outcomes, uncontrolled voiding, difficulty in bladder emptying, pyelonephritis, and constipation are more common in patients with SCT than in healthy children.


Teratoma Sacrococcygeal Ovarian Germ cell Testicular Hydrops Fetal surgery 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Children’s Health Ireland at CrumlinDublinIreland
  2. 2.The National Children’s HospitalDublinIreland
  3. 3.Children’s Health Ireland at Temple StreetDublinIreland

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