Ophthalmic Trauma

Living reference work entry


Ocular trauma is the most common cause of uniocular blindness in children. Trauma to the eye and periocular region may occur by many mechanisms and can cause a wide spectrum of injuries ranging from superficial to vision-threatening. Injury may occur due to blunt trauma, penetrating injuries, projectile injuries, chemical exposure, explosions/blast injuries, and crush injuries. Open-globe injuries, where the eye wall has a full-thickness wound, are associated with poorer outcomes, compared to closed globe injuries.

Ocular trauma in children may occur in isolation or with associated head or systemic injury; therefore, it is vital that any potentially life-threatening injuries are identified and treated as a priority. If a ruptured globe is suspected, manipulation and examination of the eye should be kept to a minimum until the patient is in the operating theatre. Visual prognosis varies greatly depending on type and location of injury. Presenting visual acuity is a key factor in predicting final visual outcome. In children less than 7 or 8 years old, visual outcomes following a traumatic eye injury are dependent upon successful amblyopia management post injury.


Pediatric Ocular Trauma Uniocular blindness Amblyopia 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cork University Hospital/South Infirmary Victoria University HospitalCorkIreland
  2. 2.Mater Private HospitalDublinIreland
  3. 3.The National Maternity HospitalDublinIreland

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