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Ophthalmic Trauma

Living reference work entry
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Abstract

Ocular trauma is the most common cause of uniocular blindness in children. Trauma to the eye and periocular region may occur by many mechanisms and can cause a wide spectrum of injuries ranging from superficial to vision-threatening. Injury may occur due to blunt trauma, penetrating injuries, projectile injuries, chemical exposure, explosions/blast injuries, and crush injuries. Open-globe injuries, where the eye wall has a full-thickness wound, are associated with poorer outcomes, compared to closed globe injuries.

Ocular trauma in children may occur in isolation or with associated head or systemic injury; therefore, it is vital that any potentially life-threatening injuries are identified and treated as a priority. If a ruptured globe is suspected, manipulation and examination of the eye should be kept to a minimum until the patient is in the operating theatre. Visual prognosis varies greatly depending on type and location of injury. Presenting visual acuity is a key factor in predicting final visual outcome. In children less than 7 or 8 years old, visual outcomes following a traumatic eye injury are dependent upon successful amblyopia management post injury.

Keywords

Pediatric Ocular Trauma Uniocular blindness Amblyopia 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cork University Hospital/South Infirmary Victoria University HospitalCorkIreland
  2. 2.Mater Private HospitalDublinIreland
  3. 3.The National Maternity HospitalDublinIreland

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