Ion Beam Machining
Ion beam machining (IBM) is an important nonconventional manufacturing technology used in micro-/nanofabrication, using a stream of accelerated ions by electrical means in a vacuum chamber to remove, add, or modify the atoms on the surface of the object. Mainly resulting from the energetic collision cascade, the ion beam removed or sputtered atoms from the workpiece by transferring sufficient ions’ energy and momentum to target atoms, and parts of the ions will finally implant into the substrate after losing energy (Machine Tool 2016; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion_beam). IBM usually can be functional classified to ion sputtering/etching (remove material), ion sputter coating/ion-induced deposition (add material), and ion implantation (implant modification) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion_beam; Hellborg et al. 2009...
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