CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

Living Edition
| Editors: The International Academy for Production Engineering, Sami Chatti, Tullio Tolio

Electric Test

  • Alexander Hensel
  • Ping Xu
  • Daniel Graef
  • Joerg FrankeEmail author
Living reference work entry


The application of an electric test can verify the functionality of an assembled circuit board.

Several tests are used: in-circuit test, flying probe testers, and run-in/burn-in test. The in-circuit test describes a test pattern where a final assembled circuit board is tested in order to identify malfunctions. The flying probe was developed based on bed-of-nail (BON) with probes replacing the pins. The run-in/burn-in test is a quality screening technique for electronic components under electrical and thermal stress, used for early failure detection.

Theory and Application

In-Circuit Test

Theory: In in-circuit test a testing plate with spring-loaded testing probes is used to contact every essential electrical pad. Hence, the performance of the mounted devices can be measured without interference from nearby components. Specified values like resistance and capacitance are as well measured as the general operation of ICs or analogue devices. Furthermore, the programming of...
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Copyright information

© CIRP 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Hensel
    • 1
  • Ping Xu
    • 1
  • Daniel Graef
    • 1
  • Joerg Franke
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems (FAPS)Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU)NurembergGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joerg Krueger
    • 1
  • Kirsten Tracht
  1. 1.IWFTechnische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany