Encyclopedia of Biophysics

Living Edition
| Editors: Gordon Roberts, Anthony Watts, European Biophysical Societies

Oxidative Stress

  • Douglas D. Thomas
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35943-9_48-1

Synonyms

Definition

Oxidative stress (OS) is a general term used to describe an imbalance in the relative levels of prooxidants and antioxidants in which the levels of prooxidants are in excess.

General Overview

Under conditions of normal physiologic homeostasis, the production of prooxidants is kept in balance by equal or excess amounts of antioxidants. A state of oxidative stress occurs when this balance is perturbed in favor of excess prooxidants. An antioxidant is any molecule that delays, prevents, or removes oxidative damage to a target molecule. They are usually present in low concentrations compared to the amount of oxidizable substrates. Prooxidants are substances that generate oxidants or inhibit antioxidant systems. Oxidants are molecules that gain electrons in redox chemical reactions and promote the oxidation of target molecules. Biological oxidants relevant to oxidative stress are “Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS),”...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Brown DI, Griendling KK (2009) Nox proteins in signal transduction. Free Radic Biol Med 47:1239–1253CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Burney S, Caulfield JL, Niles JC, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR (1999) The chemistry of DNA damage from nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. Mutat Res 424:37–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Forman HJ, Fukuto JM, Torres M (2003) Signal transduction by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 53–79Google Scholar
  4. Hall A, Nelson K, Poole L, Karplus PA (2010) Structure-based insights into the catalytic power and conformational dexterity of peroxiredoxins. Antioxid Redox Signal 15:795–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Halliwell B, Gutteridge J (2007) Free radicals in biology and medicine, 4th edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, pp 187–267; 488-613Google Scholar
  6. Ignarro LJ (2010) Nitric oxide: biology and pathobiology, 2nd edn. Academic, Burlington, pp 3–102Google Scholar
  7. Lancaster J Jr (1996) Nitric oxide: principles and actions, 1st edn. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  8. Thomas DD, Espey MG, Vitek MP, Miranda KM, Wink DA (2002) Protein nitration is mediated by heme and free metals through Fenton-type chemistry: an alternative to the NO/O2 reaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:12691–12696CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Thomas DD, Heinecke JL, Ridnour LA, Cheng RY, Kesarwala AH, Switzer CH, McVicar DW, Roberts DD, Glynn S, Fukuto JM, Wink DA, Miranda KM (2015) Signaling and stress: the redox landscape in NOS2 biology. Free Radic Biol Med 87:204–225CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Biophysical Societies' Association (EBSA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicinal Chemistry and PharmacognosyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA