Living reference work entry
Studies of recent years indicate that gene regulation at the level of translation is as important as transcriptional control. Such posttranscriptional gene regulation occurs temporally as well as spatially. For the latter, numerous examples are available from fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates, where mRNAs are transported to subcellular sites and locally translated into asymmetrically deposited protein products (Fig. 1) (Mofatteh and Bullock 2017). Throughout eukaryotes, mRNA localization and localized translation constitute an important mechanism to produce cellular asymmetry (Martin and Ephrussi 2009). Genome-wide assessments of mRNAs during the oogenesis and embryogenesis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster showed that 27% and 71% of all expressed transcripts exhibit distinct subcellular patterns (Lecuyer et al. 2007; Jambor et al. 2015). Although these numbers are likely to be lower for other organisms, these examples...
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