Encyclopedia of Biophysics

Living Edition
| Editors: Gordon Roberts, Anthony Watts, European Biophysical Societies

Hydrogen Exchange

  • Kandala V. R. Chary
  • Atul K. Srivastava
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35943-9_329-2

Hydrogen exchange is an interchange of hydrogen atom of a molecule (protein, nucleic acid, etc.) with that of the solvent (Englander and Kallenbach 1983). It is catalyzed by both acid (H3O+) and base (OH).

In general, the hydrogen exchange rate constants (krc) vary with temperature and pH. When log (krc) is plotted against pH, it gives rise to a v-shaped curve with a minimum around pH 3.0. In a random coil peptide, the krc of an individual amide proton (1HN) further depends on the amino acid sequence (due to the inductive and steric effects of neighboring residues). All these effects can be taken together to predict respective krc (Bai factors) of any given protein sequence (Bai et al. 1993).

In folded proteins, the observed 1HN exchange rates (kobs) are much smaller than the predicted krc, and such retardation in exchange process is expressed in terms of protection factor, P (krc/kobs), that can range from value 1 (completely unprotected) to 1010or higher for significantly protected...

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References

  1. Bai Y, Milne JS, Mayne L, Englander SW (1993) Primary structure effects on peptide group hydrogen exchange. Proteins 17:75–86CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Englander SW, Kallenbach NR (1983) Hydrogen exchange and structural dynamics of proteins and nucleic acids. Q Rev Biophys 16:521–655CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Hwang T-L, Mori S, Shaka AJ, van Zijl PCM (1997) Application of Phase-Modulated CLEAN chemical EXchange spectroscopy (CLEANEX-PM) to detect water–protein proton exchange and intermolecular NOEs. J Am Chem Soc 119:6203–6204Google Scholar
  4. Hwang TL, van Zijl PC, Mori S (1998) Accurate quantitation of water-amide proton exchange rates using the phase-modulated CLEAN chemical EXchange (CLEANEX-PM) approach with a Fast-HSQC (FHSQC) detection scheme. J Biomol NMR 11:221–226Google Scholar
  5. Ward KM, Aletras AH, Balaban RS (2000) A new class of contrast agents for MRI based on proton chemical exchange dependent saturation transfer (CEST). J Magn Reson 143:79–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Biophysical Societies' Association (EBSA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical SciencesTata Institute of Fundamental ResearchMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of PathologyThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Mitsu Ikura

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