Vacuolar-Type ATPases in Animal and Plant Cells
The F-type ATP synthase and V-type ATPase are rotating enzymes in which proton transport across membranes is coupled with ATP synthesis and ATP hydrolysis, respectively. Rotation of the stalk domain is required for continuous catalysis of the both enzymes coupling to transport.
Protons (H+) play vital roles in bioenergetics and ion homeostasis, as evidenced by the presence of unique acidic compartments both inside and outside of cells. The acidification of compartments results in an electrochemical proton gradient being generated across the membranes. The initial step in forming acidic compartments is the transport of protons by ATPases. Three classes of ATPases are known, the P-ATPase (P-type ATPase), the F-ATPase (F-type ATPase), and the V-ATPase (vacuolar-type ATPase), their nomenclature being derived from a phosphoryl...
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