Seismometer Self-Noise and Measuring Methods
Coherence analysis; Instrument noise; Seismometer testing
Seismometer self-noise is usually not considered when selecting and using seismic waveform data in scientific research as it is typically assumed that the self-noise is negligibly small compared to seismic signals. However, instrumental noise is part of the noise in any seismic record, and in particular, at frequencies below a few mHz, the instrumental noise has a frequency-dependent character and may dominate the noise. When seismic noise itself is considered as a carrier of information, as in seismic interferometry (e.g., Chaput et al. 2012), it becomes extremely important to estimate the contribution of instrumental noise to the recordings.
Noise in seismic recordings, commonly called seismic background noise or ambient Earth noise, usually refers to the sum of the individual noise sources in a seismic recording in the absence of any earthquake signal. Site noise (e.g., cultural sources, nearby tilt...
- Aki K, Richards PG (2002) Quantitative seismology. University Science, SausalitoGoogle Scholar
- Anderson KE, Anderson JF, Anthony RE, Chaput J, McMahon ND, Morton EA, Aster R (2012) A site comparison between shallow vault-deployed and direct burial broadband seismometers, IRIS 2012 Workshop Abstracts. http://www.iris.edu/hq/iris_workshop2012/scihi/WebPages/0070.html
- Berger J, Davis P, Ekstrӧm G (2004) Ambient earth noise: a survey of the global seismographic network. J Geophys Res 109, B11307Google Scholar
- Hanka W (2000). Which parameters influence the very long period performance of a seismological station? GEOFON Program. http://geofon.gfz-potsdam.de/geofon/manual/welcome.html
- Hart D, Merchant B, Chael E (2007) Seismic and infrasound sensor testing using three-channel coherence analysis. In: 29th monitoring research review: ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring technologies. LA-UR-07-5613, 935–944Google Scholar
- Holcomb LG (1989) A direct method for calculating instrument noise levels in side-by-side seismometer evaluations. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report, 89–214, 34 ppGoogle Scholar
- Holcomb LG (1990) A numerical study of some potential sources of error in side-by-side seismometer evaluations. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report, 90–406, 41 ppGoogle Scholar
- Hutt CR, Evans JR, Followill F, Nigbor RL, Wielandt E (2010) Guidelines for standardized testing of broadband seismometers and accelerometers. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report, 2009–1295, 62 ppGoogle Scholar
- Kromer RP (2006) Technology report evaluation of the Kinemetrics/Quanterra Q330HR Remote Seismic System for IRIS/GSN Q330HR/GainX1 Configuration, 32286.http://www.iris.edu/hq/files/programs/gsn/documents/IRIS_Progress_Report2_Q330HR.pdf
- Peterson J (1993) Observations and modeling of seismic background noise. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report, 93–322, 95 ppGoogle Scholar
- Rodgers PW (1994) Self-noise spectra for 34 common electromagnetic seismometer/preamplifier Pairs. Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:222–228Google Scholar
- Scherbaum F (2007) Of poles and zeros: fundamentals of digital seismology, 2nd edn. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar