Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Renzo Shamey

Blind Spot

  • Jonathan AboshihaEmail author
Living reference work entry

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27851-8_274-3
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Synonyms

Definition

Blind spot is the name given to the scotomatous area of each eye’s visual field that lacks visual input, due to the photoreceptor-free region of the retina where the optic nerve exits the eye.

Overview

The phenomenon of the blind spot was first described in 1668 by the French Roman Catholic priest and scientist Edme Mariotte, who used small circles of white paper to locate the region of visual space in which they disappeared [ 1]. Prior to this discovery, the role of the optic disc was not clear, and scientists such as Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) had thought that the visual image actually fell only on the head of the optic nerve itself [ 2]. The vertically oval area of the blind spot subtends about 5 × 7° of visual angle and corresponds to the projection in visual space of the optic nerve head, which has average vertical and horizontal disc diameters of 1.88 and 1.77 mm, respectively [ 3]. The physiological blind spot is centered...
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References

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    Grzybowski, A., Aydin, P.: Edme Mariotte (1620–1684): pioneer of neurophysiology. Surv. Ophthalmol. 52(4), 443–451 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Arrington, G.E.: A History of Ophthalmology. MD Publications, New York (1959)Google Scholar
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    Quigley, H.A., Brown, A.E., Morrison, J.D., Drance, S.M.: The size and shape of the optic disc in normal human eyes. Arch. Ophthalmol. 108(1), 51–57 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Spillmann, L., Otte, T., Hamburger, K., Magnussen, S.: Perceptual filling-in from the edge of the blind spot. Vis. Res. 46(25), 4252–4257 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Ramachandran, V.S., Gregory, R.L.: Perceptual filling in of artificially induced scotomas in human vision. Nature. 350(6320), 699–702 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Jonas, J., Gusek, G., Fernández, M.: Correlation of the blind spot size to the area of the optic disk and parapapillary atrophy. Am J. Ophthalmol. 111(5), 559–565 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Meyer, J.H., Guhlmann, M., Funk, J.: Blind spot size depends on the optic disc topography: a study using SLO controlled scotometry and the Heidelberg retina tomograph. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 81(5), 355–359 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Yates, J., Diamantopoulos, I., Daumann, F.: Acquired (transient and permanent) color vision disorders. In: Menu, J. (ed.) Operational Color Vision in the Modern Aviation Environment, p. 1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization Research and Technology Organization A, Neuilly-Sur-Seine Cedex (2001)Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The UCL Institute of Ophthalmology and Moorfields Eye HospitalLondonUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Rolf G. Kuehni
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Color ScienceNC State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Color Research & ApplicationPennsvilleUSA