Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Renzo Shamey

Color Centers

  • Richard J. D. TilleyEmail author
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27851-8_223-3

Definition

Color centers are point defects or point defect clusters associated with trapped electrons or holes in normally transparent materials. These centers cause the solid to become colored when the electronic ground state of the defect is excited to higher energy states by the absorption of visible light [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. [Note that transition metal and lanthanoid ion dopants that engender color in an otherwise colorless matrix are frequently called color centers. These are dealt with elsewhere (see “Cross-References”).]

Color Centers

The concept of color arising from point defects was initially developed in the first half of the twentieth century, principally by Pohl, in Germany. It was discovered that clear alkali halide crystals could be made intensely colored by diverse methods, including irradiation by X-rays, heating crystals in the vapor of any alkali metal, and electrolysis. Crystals with induced color were found to have a lower density than the crystals before treatment...

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References

  1. 1.
    Tilley, R.J.D.: Defects in Solids. Wiley, Hoboken (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tilley, R.J.D.: Colour and the Optical Properties of Materials, 2nd edn. Wiley, Chichester (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nassau, K.: The Physics and Chemistry of Colour, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hayes, W., Stoneham, A.M.: Defects and Defect Processes in Nonmetallic Solids. Wiley, New York (1985). Reprinted by Dover, Mineola (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fowler, W.B.: Chapter 2: The imperfect solid – color centers in ionic crystals. In: Hannay, N.B. (ed.) Treatise on Solid State Chemistry, Vol. 2, Defects in Solids. Plenum, New York (1975)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Acosta, V.: In: Hemmer, P. (ed.) Nitrogen-Vacancy Centres: Physics and Applications. M. R. S. Bulletin, vol. 38. Materials Research Society, Warrendale (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wu, Y., Jelezko, F., Plenio, M.B., Weil, T.: Diamond quantum devices in biology. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 55, 6586–6598 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Queen’s BuildingsCardiff UniversityCardiffUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joanne Zwinkels
    • 1
  1. 1.National Research Council CanadaOttawaCanada