Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

Living Edition
| Editors: Muriel Gargaud, William M. Irvine, Ricardo Amils, Henderson James Cleaves, Daniele Pinti, José Cernicharo Quintanilla, Michel Viso

Manganese Oxidation

  • Colleen M. HanselEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27833-4_5403-1

Chemical Formula

Mn, MnO2

Definition

Manganese (Mn) is a transition metal present at trace levels in the modern ocean where it cycles between three oxidation states, +2, +3, and +4. Mn is a cofactor in enzymes critical for life, including the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II involved in oxygenic photosynthesis and superoxide dismutase (SOD) that degrades oxygen radicals responsible for oxidative stress. Mn(IV) forms a suite of Mn oxide minerals found within marine ferromanganese crusts and nodules that scavenge trace metals and record paleoredox conditions throughout Earth’s history. Mn oxides form within a wide range of environments, including deserts, and on Mars as rock varnish and crusts.

Overview

Manganese (Mn) oxides are widespread on Earth, occurring as particles or grain coatings, rock varnish, cave deposits, and ferromanganese crusts and nodules. Rocks and sediments enriched in Mn oxides have been observed on Mars (Lanza et al. 2014) and in early Earth strata (Crerar...

Keywords

Metal Bacteria Fungi Metabolism Oxygen reduction Desert varnish Ferromanganese crusts Ferromanganese nodules Sediments Minerals Redox 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Further Reading

  1. Butterfield CN, Soldatova AV, Lee S-W, Spiro TG, Tebo BM (2013) Mn(II,III) oxidation and MnO2 mineralization by an expressed bacterial multicopper oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:11731–11735ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clement BG, Luther GW III, Tebo BM (2009) Rapid, oxygen-dependent microbial Mn(II) oxidation kinetics at sub-micromolar oxygen concentrations in the Black Sea suboxic zone. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:1878–1889ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Crerar DA, Fischer AG, Plaza CL (1980) Metallogenium and biogenic deposition of manganese from Precambrian to recent time. In: Vanentsov IM, Grasselly G (eds) Geology and geochemistry of manganese. Volume III. Manganese on the bottom of recent basins. Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, pp 285–303Google Scholar
  4. Duckworth OW, Sposito G (2005) Siderophore-manganese(III) interactions. I. Air-oxidation of manganese(II) promoted by desferrioxamine B. Environ Sci Technol 39:6037–6044ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Estes ER, Andeer PF, Nordlund D, Wankel SD, Hansel CM (2016) Biogenic manganese oxide as reservoirs of organic carbon and proteins in terrestrial and marine environments. Geobiol J 15:158.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gbi.12195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gadd GM (2010) Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation. Microbiology 156:609–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hansard SP, Easter HD, Voelker BM (2011) Rapid reaction of nanomolar Mn(II) with superoxide radical in seawater and simulated freshwater. Environ Sci Technol 45:2811–2817ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hansel CM (2017) Manganese in marine microbiology. In: Poole RK (ed) Advances in microbial physiology. Academic Press, Oxford, pp 37–83Google Scholar
  9. Hansel CM, Learman DR (2015) Geomicrobiology of manganese. In: Ehrlich HL, Newman DK, Kappler A (eds) Ehrlich’s geomicrobiology. CRC Press, New York, pp 401–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hansel CM, Zeiner CA, Santelli CM, Webb SM (2012) Mn(II) oxidation linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction in an Ascomycete fungi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:12621–12625ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Johnson HA, Tebo BM (2008) In vitro studies indicate a quinone is involved in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation. Arch Microbiol 189:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Krinsley D, Dorn R, DiGregorio B (2009) Astrobiological implications of rock varnish in Tibet. Astrobiology 9:551–562ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lanza NL, Fischer WW, Wiens RC, Grotzinger J, Ollila AM, Cousin A, Anderson RB, Clark BC, Gellert R, Mangold N, Maurice S, Le Mouelic S, Nachon M, Schmidt M, Berger J, Clegg SM, Forni O, Hardgrove C, Melikechi N, Newsom HE, Sautter V (2014) High manganese concentrations in rocks at Gale crater, Mars. Geophys Res Lett 41:5755–5763ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Learman DR, Voelker BM, Vazquez-Rodriguez AI, Hansel CM (2011) Formation of manganese oxides by bacterially generated superoxide. Nat Geosci 4:95–98ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Learman DR, Voelker BM, Madden AS, Hansel C (2013) Constraints on superoxide mediated formation of manganese oxides. Front Microbiol 4:262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Luther GW III (2010) The role of one- and two-electron transfer reactions in forming thermodynamically unstable intermediates as barriers in multi-electron redox reactions. Aquat Geochem 16:395–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Madison AS, Tebo BM, Mucci A, Sundby B, Luther GW III (2013) Abundant porewater Mn(III) is a major component of the sedimentary redox system. Science 341:875–878ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Morgan JJ (2000) Manganese in natural waters and earth’s crust: its availability to organisms. Met Ions Biol Syst 37:1–34Google Scholar
  19. Oldham VE, Mucci A, Tebo BM, Luther GW III (2017) Soluble Mn(III)–L complexes are abundant in oxygenated waters and stabilized by humic ligands. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 199:238–246ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Siebert C, Nägler TF, von Blanckenburg F, Kramers JD (2003) Molybdenum isotope records as a potential new proxy for paleoceanography. Earth Planet Sci Lett 211:159–171ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sunda WG, Huntsman SA (1994) Photoreduction of manganese oxides in seawater. Mar Chem 46:133–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tang Y, Zeiner CA, Santelli CM, Hansel CM (2013) Fungal oxidative dissolution of the Mn(II)-bearing mineral rhodochrosite and the role of metabolites in manganese oxide formation. Environ Microbiol 15:1063–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tebo BM, Bargar JR, Clement BG, Dick GJ, Murray KJ, Parker DL, Verity R, Webb SM (2004) Biogenic manganese oxides: properties and mechanisms of formation. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 32:287–328ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tebo BM, Johnson HA, McCarthy JK, Templeton AS (2005) Geomicrobiology of manganese(II) oxidation. Trends Microbiol 13:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Webb SM, Dick GJ, Bargar JR, Tebo BM (2005) Evidence for the presence of Mn(III) intermediates in the bacterial oxidation of Mn(II). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5558–5563ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Woods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA