DNAdamage consists in chemical modifications of the deoxyribonucleic acid components that include alterations of the four main purine (adenine, guanine) and pyrimidine (cytosine, thymine) bases, the relatively minor 5-methylcytosine base and the 2-deoxyribose moiety. According to the damaging agents that may be endogenous (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite, etc.) and exogenous (solar light, ionizing radiation, alkylating compounds, etc.), several classes of DNA lesions may be generated. These include single- and double-strand breaks, normal and oxidized abasic sites, single modified bases (oxidized lesions, alkylated adducts, addition products with reactive aldehyde arising from the breakdown of lipid peroxides, and 2-deoxyribose oxidation), tandem modifications (intrastrand bipyrimidine photoproducts, vicinal oxidized bases), DNA-protein cross-links, interstrand cross-links, and clustered lesions (association...
KeywordsBipyrimidine photoproducts Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers DNA oxidation products DNA strand breaks 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine Pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts Spore photoproduct
References and Further Reading
- Cadet J, Vigny P (1990) The photochemistry of nucleic acids. In: Morrison H (ed) Bioorganic photo- chemistry: photochemistry and the nucleic acids, vol 1. Wiley, New York, pp 1–272Google Scholar
- Cadet J, Douki T, Ravanat J (2010) Oxidatively generated damage to DNA. Free Radic Biol Med 49:9–21Google Scholar
- von Sonntag C (1987) The chemical basis of radiation biology. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar