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Interest groups have been defined in a variety of ways, and with little precision. There has been a prevalent muddle of concepts regarding “interest” focused behavior, where civil society, nongovernmental organizations, pressure groups, advocacy groups, and political-social movements are used intermittently to describe the phenomenon. It has generally been held that interest groups consist of citizens who have a shared attitude or purpose, operating outside the private domain, the state and the market (although the boundaries are often blurred), who organize in an attempt to influence public policy (Eising 2016). When people join together to pursue their interests in the political arena, they constitute a “group.” Interest groups’ definition reveals three dimensions: structural-organizational, behavioral, and motivational. According to the organizational approach, interest groups are...
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