The Palgrave Encyclopedia of the Possible

Living Edition
| Editors: Vlad Petre Glăveanu (Editor-in-Chief)

Possible in Education

Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history



Education is a masterful word. Masterful comes from master, mastery, skills, virtuosity, expertise, teaching, and learning, making something possible. There is no one single social group whose members do not educate each other. Regardless of the level of development of a society, all its members are educated throughout their life cycle. Education may come through formal means, through schools, universities, religious education, and other institutions, or during daily experiences in the confrontation of day-to-day life, which demands multiple learning. To talk about education is to talk about our history, to think about the long life path in which we are subjects of a culture together with each other, in social interactions. To speak of education is to think of possibilities and to think of possibilities places us before limits, barriers, impossibilities. The word Education comes from the Latin verb educare that unfolds into two different meanings: dúcere, which means to take, guide, lead someone somewhere, and educare, which is linked to the sense of nurturing, raising (a child), and making (someone) grow. In this entry, we will talk about education in its formal dimension: one that involves human development processes, that generates the new, that demands teaching, that generates learning, and that requires creativity. We will discuss these processes in the light of the philosophy of education, cultural psychology, and the psychology of creativity, seeking to understand how educational acts transform human beings, (re)signifying their existential experiences and changing the world in which we live. Possibilities and impossibilities will be problematized throughout this discussion.


Education Possibilities Human development Creativity 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Brighente, M. F. (2016). Paulo Freire: da denúncia da educação bancária ao anúncio de uma pedagogia libertadora. Pro-Posições, 27(1), 155–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bruner, J. S. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bruner, J. S. (1996). The culture of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Chomsky, N. (2016). Who rules the word? New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  5. Dale, J., & Hyslop-Margison, E. J. (Eds.). (2011). Paulo Freire: Teaching for freedom and transformation: The philosophical influences on the work of Paulo Freire. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Fourez, G. (2003). Crise no ensino de ciências? Investigações no Ensino de Ciências, 8(2), 109–123.Google Scholar
  7. Fourez, G. (2006). Educar. Docentes, alunos, escolas, éticas, sociedades. Aparecida: Editora Ideias & Letras.Google Scholar
  8. Freire, P. (2011). Pedagogia da autonomia. Saberes necessários à prática educativa. São Paulo: Editora Paz e Terra. Versão E-book.Google Scholar
  9. Freire, P. (2013). Pedagogia do oprimido. São Paulo: Editora Paz e Terra. Versão E-book.Google Scholar
  10. Freire, P. (2015). Educação como prática da liberdade. São Paulo: Editora Paz e Terra. Versão E-book.Google Scholar
  11. Freire, P. (2017). Da importância do ato de ler em três artigos que se completam. São Paulo: Cortez Editora. Versão E-book.Google Scholar
  12. Giatti, L. L., & Murzyn-Kupisz, M. (Eds.). (2019). Participatory research in the post-normal age: Unsustainability and uncertainties to rethink Paulo Freire’s pedagogy of the oppressed. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Glăveanu, V. P. (2014). Distributed creativity: Thinking outside the box of the creative individual. Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glăveanu, V. P. (2015). Creativity as a sociocultural act. Journal of Creative Behavior, 49(3), 165–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Glaveanu, V. P., & Neves-Pereira, M. S. (2020). Psicologia cultural da criatividade. Em M. S. Neves-Pereira & D. S. Fleith (Orgs). Teorias da Criatividade. Campinas: Alínea Editora.Google Scholar
  16. Leme, M. I. S. (2011). Jerome Bruner: o ensino e suas formas. In A. L. B. Smolka et al. (Eds.), Cultura, aprendizagem e desenvolvimento (pp. 31–60). Petrópolis: Editora Vozes.Google Scholar
  17. Marsico, G. (2015). Jerome S Bruner beyond 100. Cultivating possibilities. London: Springer. Versão E-book.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Marsico, G. (2017). Jerome S. Bruner: Manifesto for the future of education/Jerome S. Bruner: Manifiesto por el futuro de la educación. Infancia y Aprendizaje/Journal for the Study of Education and Development, 40(4), 754–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Neves-Pereira, M. S., & Branco, A. U. (2015). Criatividade na educação infantil: contribuições da psicologia cultural para a investigação de concepções e práticas de educadores. Estudos de Psicologia, 20(3), 161–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Neves-Pereira, M. S., & Silva, P. T. (2019). Investigating and developing creativity at school: A proposal by the cultural psychology of creativity. Trabalho apresentado na Conferência 3rd MIC, Bologna, na modalidade apresentação oral.Google Scholar
  21. Takaya, K. (Ed.). (2013). Jerome Bruner. Developing a sense of the possible. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Valsiner, J. (2014). An invitation to cultural psychology. London: SAGE Editor.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Valsiner, J. (2019). Cultural psychology as a theoretical project/La psicología cultural como proyecto teórico. Estudios de Psicología, 11–18. Scholar
  24. Vygotsky, L. S. (1991). A formação social da mente. São Paulo: Martins Fontes.Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidade de Brasília – UnBBrasília-DFBrazil

Section editors and affiliations

  • Izabela Lebuda

There are no affiliations available