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Fusarium Secondary Metabolism Biosynthetic Pathways: So Close but So Far Away

  • Łukasz StępieńEmail author
  • Justyna Lalak-Kańczugowska
  • Natalia Witaszak
  • Monika Urbaniak
Reference work entry
  • 111 Downloads
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Fusarium species are casual filamentous fungi, including opportunistic pathogens infecting plants worldwide, but also able to grow as saprotrophs in a range of climatic zones. The genus is extremely variable in terms of genetics, biology, ecology, and, consequently, secondary metabolism, which directly relates to ecological conditions and niches occupied by individual species. Fungal secondary metabolites are the main “weapon” of the pathogenic species before, during, and after the infection process, allowing for the communication with the organism that is being attacked. Many of secondary metabolites are common for diverse fungal microorganisms, and their mode of action is similar for various plant-pathogen systems. Fusaria are able to produce a range of quite specific metabolites, some of which have yet unknown biological functions. Nevertheless, genetic and biochemical pathways responsible for their biosynthesis remain under strong selection pressure, which keeps their structures and functions relatively stable, regardless of the producing organism. Here, we summarize the data available in recent literature reports on genetic and biochemical diversity occurring in the studies of main secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium species differing in origin and ecology.

Keywords

Fumonisins Fungal ecology Metabolic pathways Mycotoxins Phylogeny Trichothecenes Zearalenone 

List of Abbreviations

AcDON

Acetylated DON derivatives

BEA

Beauvericin

bik

Bikaverin biosynthetic gene cluster

car

Carotenoid biosynthetic gene cluster

DAS

Diacetoxyscirpenol

DMATS

Dimethylallyltryptophan synthase

DON

Deoxynivalenol

ENN

Enniatin

eqx

Equisetin biosynthetic gene cluster

FA

Fusaric acid

FB

Fumonisin B

FESC

F. equiseti species complex

FFSC

F. fujikuroi species complex

FGSC

F. graminearum species complex

FOSC

F. oxysporum species complex

FPP

Farnesyl pyrophosphate

Fsr

Fusarubin biosynthetic gene cluster

FSSC

F. solani species complex

FUB

Fusaric acid biosynthetic gene cluster

FUM

Fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster

FUS

Fusarin C biosynthetic gene cluster

GA

Gibberellins

GGPP

Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MON

Moniliformin

NIV

Nivalenol

NRPS

Nonribosomal peptide synthetase

PKS

Polyketide synthase

PM

Primary metabolism

SM

Secondary metabolite

TC

Terpene cyclase

TF

Transcription factor

TRI

Trichothecene biosynthetic gene cluster

ZEA

Zearalenone

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was supported by the Polish National Science Centre grants: 2014/15/B/NZ9/01544 and 2015/17/B/NZ9/03577.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Łukasz Stępień
    • 1
    Email author
  • Justyna Lalak-Kańczugowska
    • 1
  • Natalia Witaszak
    • 1
  • Monika Urbaniak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathogen Genetics and Plant ResistanceInstitute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of SciencesPoznańPoland

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