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Shape-Memory Polymers

  • Magdalena Mazurek-Budzyńska
  • Muhammad Yasar Razzaq
  • Marc Behl
  • Andreas LendleinEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series book series (POPOC)

Abstract

Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are stimuli-sensitive materials capable of changing their shape on demand. A shape-memory function is a result of the polymer architecture together with the application of a specific programming procedure. Various possible mechanisms to induce the shape-memory effect (SME) can be realized, which can be based on thermal transitions of switching domains or on reversible molecular switches (e.g., supramolecular interactions, reversible covalent bonds). Netpoints, which connect the switching domains and determine the permanent shape, can be either provided by covalent bonds or by physical intermolecular interactions, such as hydrogen bonds or crystallites. This chapter reviews different ways of implementing the phenomenon of programmable changes in the polymer shape, including the one-way shape-memory effect (1-W SME), triple- and multi-shape effects (TSE/MSE), the temperature-memory effect (TME), and reversible shape-memory effects, which can be realized in constant stress conditions (rSME), or in stress-free conditions (reversible bidirectional shape-memory effect (rbSME)). Furthermore, magnetically actuated SMPs and shape-memory hydrogels (SMHs) are described to show the potential of the SMP technology in biomedical applications and multifunctional approaches.

Abbreviations

1-W SME

One-way shape-memory effect

AD

Actuator domains

Alg

Alginate

AMF

Alternating magnetic field

BA

n-Butyl acrylate

BD

1,4-Butanediol

BHECA

N,N-bis(2-Hydroxyethyl) cinnamamide

BM

1,1′-(Methylenedi-p-phenylene)bismaleimide

CA

Cinnamic acid

CAA

Cynnamylidien acetic acid

CD

Cyclodextrine

CIE

Crystallization-induced elongation

CLEG

Copolymer network from PCL with grafted PEG segments

CMF

Cavitation-based mechanical force

cPEVA

Covalently crosslinked poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)]

CTB

Carboxyl-terminated polybutadiene

DA

Diels-Alder reaction

DETA

Diethylenetriamine

DMPA

Dimethylolpropionic acid

Gly

Glycine

H

Magnetic field strength

Hdef

Deformation magnetic field strength

HDI

Hexamethylene diisocyanate

HEA-CA

Ethyleneglycol-1-acrylate-2-CA

HEMA

Hydroxyethyl methacrylate

Hhigh

High magnetic field strength

Hlow

Low magnetic field strength

H-NC

Hybrid nanocomposite

Hsw

Switching magnetic field strength

Hσ,max

Magnetic field strength at maximum stress generated

IPN

Interpenetrating polymer network

IR

Infrared

LU

Low frequency ultrasound

MACL

Copolymer of PCL and poly(cyclohexyl methacrylate)

MDI

4,4′-Diphenylmethane diisocyanate

MIC

Melting-induced contraction

MME

Magnetic-memory effect

MNP

Magnetic nanoparticles

MSE

Multi-shape effect

PBA

Poly(butylene adipate)

PCHMA

Poly(cyclohexyl methacrylate)

PCL

Poly(ε-caprolactone)

PDC

Multiblock copolymer from PPDO and PCL

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PEGDA

Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate

PET

Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

PEU

Poly(ester-urethane)

PEVA

Poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)]

PHEG-Cn

Poly[N5-(2-hydroxyethyl) L-glutamine] with alkyl side chains -CnH2n+1

PLA

Polylactide

PLLA

Poly(L-lactide)

PPDL

Poly(ω-pentadecalactone)

PPDL-PCL

Multiblock copolymer from PPDL and PCL

PPDO

Poly(p-dioxanone)

PPGDMA

Poly(propylene glycol) dimethacrylate

PS

Polystyrene

PSVP

Poly[styrene-co-(4-vinylpyridine)]

PTMG

Poly(tetramethylene glycol)

PUR

Polyurethane

PVA

Poly(vinyl alcohol)

Qef

Deformation fixation efficiency

rbSME

Reversible bidirectional shape-memory effect

r-DA

Retro-Diels-Alder

Rf

Shape fixity ratio

Rh-PCBs

Rhodium-phosphine coordination bonds

rmag-SME

Magnetically controlled rSME

Rr

Shape recovery ratio

rSME

Reversible shape-memory effect

S/V

Surface-to-volume ratio

SAXS

Small-angle X-ray scattering

SGD

Shape shifting geometry domains

SME

Shape-memory effect

SMH

Shape-memory hydrogel

SMP

Shape-memory polymer

sNP

Silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

Tact

Actuation temperature

Td

Deformation temperature

Tenv

Environmental temperature

TFX

Polyetherurethane prepared from MDI, BD, and PTMG

Tg

Glass transition temperature

THF

Tetrahydrofuran

Thigh

Highest temperature in the course of shape-memory programming

Tlow

Lowest temperature in the course of shape-memory programming

Tm

Melting transition temperature

TME

Temperature-memory effect

TMPA

Temperature-memory polymer actuator

Tperm

Highest thermal transition temperature of a thermoplastic material at which the domains acting as physical crosslinks melt

TSE

Triple-shape effect

TSP

Triple-shape polymer

TSPC

Triple-shape polymeric composites

Tsw

Switching temperature

Ttrans

Thermal transition temperature

Tu

Unloading temperature

Tσ,max

Temperature determined at the maximum of recovery stress

UPy

2-Ureido-4-pyrimidinone

UV

Ultraviolet

ZnCTB

Zinc salt of carboxyl-terminated polybutadiene

ZnOl

Zinc oleate

β-CD

β-Cyclodextrin

ε′rev

Reversible elongation

εm

Maximum deformation

εp

Strain of the sample after recovery to the permanent shape

εu(N)

Free state deformation after cooling

λ

Wave length

σmax

Recovery stress

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by the Helmholtz-Association through programme-oriented funding.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biomaterial ScienceHelmholtz-Zentrum GeesthachtTeltowGermany
  2. 2.Institute of ChemistryUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany

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