Zero Hunger

2020 Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho, Anabela Marisa Azul, Luciana Brandli, Pinar Gökçin Özuyar, Tony Wall

Pesticides’ Impact on Pollinators

  • Mirella AounEmail author
Reference work entry


Pollinators are animals that mediate the transfer of pollen between or inside flowers in wild and cultivated flowering plants causing flowering plants to reproduce. They do this by moving pollen from male part to female part of flowers. This pollen is a fine powder of microscopic particles produced by anthers, the male reproductive organs found in most flowering plants. It contains male gametes and is the male fertilizing agent of flowering plants that can fertilize the female part of a flower to produce fruit and seeds. In turn, animal-pollinated plants feed pollinators or provide them with shelter. Nectar is a sweet substance, produced by some plants to attract pollinators such as bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds. Bees collect nectar and make it into honey. While collecting the nectar, pollinators accidentally transfer pollen from male flowers to female flowers.

Insect pollinators are the major source of pollination and include bees (honey bees, solitary species, and...

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Copyright information

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.American University of Beirut BeirutLebanon

Section editors and affiliations

  • Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ManagementRasht Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityRashtIran