Self-Assessment for Learning in Vocational Education and Training

  • Ernesto PanaderoEmail author
  • Daniel Garcia
  • Juan Fraile
Reference work entry


Self-assessment is a crucial skill that students need to develop during their educational years, especially at those educational levels where the curriculum leads to future jobs. By being able to assess their own performance, students can become self-regulated learners and continue their professional development throughout their careers. This chapter will explore what is known about self-assessment through an updated version of the state-of-the-art. Firstly, it will be defined what self-assessment is, the different forms it can take, and which of those forms are most conducive to enhancing students’ learning. Secondly, it will be explored what is the relationship between self-assessment and academic achievement and between self-regulated learning strategies and self-efficacy. That section will also present an overview of the learning and psychological effects of self-assessment to conceptualize the internal cognitive, motivational, and emotional processes that are involved. Thirdly, extracted from the research literature, it will be explored what are the best instructional methods to train students to develop their self-assessment skills. In that section, both recommendations on how to help students develop the requisite skills and recommendations for teachers’ training will be presented. Lastly, we will build from best-research examples on vocational education and training to consider how self-assessment can best be implemented and extract practical implications and recommendations.


Self-assessment Self-regulated learning Professional development 



Research funded by: personal grant to first author under Ramón y Cajal framewok (RYC-2013-13469); Fundación BBVA call Investigadores y Creadores Culturales 2015 (project name Transición a la educación superior id. 122500); and by Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad) National I+D Call (Convocatoria Excelencia) project reference EDU2016-79714-P.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la EducaciónUniversidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Educational PsychologyUniversidad EuropeaMadridSpain
  3. 3.Universidad Francisco de VitoriaMadridSpain

Section editors and affiliations

  • Esther Winther

There are no affiliations available

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