VET Contribution to Human Development Within a Context of Marginalization: The Case of Palestine

  • Randa HilalEmail author
Reference work entry


One of the advantages of a human development approach to thinking about skills development is its ability to highlight the importance of inequality and marginalization compared to the orthodox human capital approach. The case of the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt) is particularly valuable in showing both the effects of marginalization and inequalities but also the possibilities for improving human development through Vocational Education and Training (VET).

The context of the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt) adds additional layers of marginalization and inequalities, creating different context-related vulnerable groups. Within such a context, highlighting VET’s contribution to human development and reducing inequalities are paramount, as well as acknowledging structural challenges faced within such a context.

In this chapter I draw on my doctoral work, in which I consulted over 1000 people through a graduate survey, focus groups with students and trainers, and interviews with VET management, teachers, and government officials.

I combine human development and capabilities’ perspectives with insights from gender and development theory and intersectionality accounts to address concerns about structure and agency. This extensive dataset and these combined theoretical resources allowed me to explore how vulnerable learners are able to make genuine progress in achieving their valued functionings in spite of the multidimensional challenges they face.

I will define the context-related vulnerabilities, as other inequalities, and test their attraction to VET, as well as the intersectionality among the different inequalities. Achieved functionings are also analyzed according to the defined inequalities and vulnerability.

The analysis and findings reveal that VET has acted as an effective tool for achievement of human development and reducing inequality. It will also define evaluative methods for impact assessment of VET within a human development approach.


Vocational education and training (VET) Occupied palestinian territories (oPt) Human development Capability and functioning Inequality Gender and development Intersectionality 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OPTIMUM for Consultancy and TrainingRamallahPalestine

Section editors and affiliations

  • Lesley Powell
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of EducationNelson Mandela Metropolitan UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa

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