Advertisement

Realizing Standards of Practice in VET

  • Maggie GregsonEmail author
  • Brian Todd
Reference work entry

Abstract

The Sainsbury (Report of the independent panel on technical education, Department for Education and Skills, London, 2016) draws attention to the importance of ensuring that proposed new standards for vocational and technical education in England are not reduced to the simplistic functional analysis of narrow job roles (an approach prevalent in England from the 1980s to the present), or limited to include only the short-term, instrumental needs of individual employers. This lesson is either hard to hear or difficult to learn. Over 20 years ago, Wolf (Competence based assessment. Open University Press, London, 1995) and, more recently, Wolf (Review of vocational education. Department of Business Education and Skills, London, 2011) warned of dangers in the use of functional analysis in the development of vocational standards on the grounds that such approaches tend to lead to the production of “bewildering lists of atomised ‘skills’ and a rather ‘tick-box’ approach to vocational assessment.” Behind this stands the deeper point, that the search to find an absolutely perfect list of vocational standards of knowledge, skills, and attitudes is costly, time-consuming, and ultimately self-defeating because, at the end of the day, all that you have is a longer/different list. Sennett (The Craftsman. Penguin, London, 2008) reminds us that what we mean by good quality work and what we consider to be effective approaches to assessment are central to good educational practice in a wide variety of vocational contexts. Literature from the field of educational research supports the claim that when teaching, learning, and assessment are seen as integrated forms of good educational practice, high levels of achievement can be realized. However, meaningful and workable standards of quality and research-informed assessment practice are not yet well understood or widely evident in the English system of vocational education and training (and possibly elsewhere).

Keywords

Apprenticeships Formative and summative assessment Functional analysis Quality Vocational education 

References

  1. Biesta G (2010) Good education in an age of measurement: ethics, politics, democracy. Paradigm Publishers, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  2. Biesta G (2014) Pragmatising the curriculum: bringing knowledge back into the curriculum conversation, but via pragmatism. Curric J 25(1):29–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bloom B (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives. Longman’s Green, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Carr W (1987) What is an educational practice? J Philos Educ 21(2):63–175Google Scholar
  5. Clarke S (2001) Unlocking formative assessment. Hodder Education, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Clarke S (2008) Active learning through formative assessment. Hodder Education, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Coffield F (2008) Just suppose teaching and learning became the first priority. Learning and Skills Research Network, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Commission on Adult Vocational Teaching and Learning (CAVTL) (2013) It’s about work. Learning and Skills Improvement Service, CoventryGoogle Scholar
  9. Dewey J (1916) Democracy and education. Southern Illinois University Press, MacMillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Dewey J (1933, Revised edn.) How we think: a restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the reflective process. Heath, BostonGoogle Scholar
  11. Dewey J (1934) Art as experience, Milton Bach, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Dunne J (2005) What’s the good of education? In: Carr W (ed) Philosophy of education. RoutledgeFalmer, Abingdon, pp 145–158Google Scholar
  13. Dweck CS (2006) Mindset the new pschology of success. Random House, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Elliott J (2001) Making evidence-based practice educational. Br Educ Res J 27(5):555–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eraut M (2004) Transfer of knowledge between education and workplace settings. In: Rainbird H, Fuller A, Munro A (eds) Workplace learning in context. Routledge, London, pp 201–221Google Scholar
  16. Fielding M, Bragg S, Craig J, Cunningham I, Eraut M, Horne M, Gillinson S, Robinson C, Thorp J (2005) Factors influencing the transfer of good practice. Department for Education and Skills, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Gregson M, Hillier Y (2015) Reflective teaching in further adult and vocational education. Bloomsbury, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Gyllenhaal J (2016) The Andrew Marr Show, BBC One 6th November 2016Google Scholar
  19. Hyland T (2009) Mindfulness and the therapeutic function of education. J Philos Educ 43(1): 119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lawton D, Gordon P (2002) A history of western educational ideas. Woburn Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Lipman M (2003) Thinking in education. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lopez RL (1971) The commercial revolution of the Middle Ages, 950–1350. Prentice Hall, Englewwod CliffsGoogle Scholar
  23. Mercer N (1995) The guided construction of knowledge. Multilingual Matters, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Raggatt P, Wiliams S (1999) Governments, markets and vocational qualifications: an anatomy of policy. Falmer, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  25. Rowntree D (1977) Assessing students how shall we know them? Harper and Row, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Sainsbury D (2016) Report of the independent panel on technical education. Department for Education and Skills, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Sennett R (2008) The craftsman. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Sennett R (2012) Together. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Wiliam D (2006) Assessment for learning: why, what and how. Cambridge assessment network conference, Sept 2006, University of CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Wolf A (1995) Competence based assessment. Open University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. Wolf A (2011) Review of vocational education. Department of Business Education and Skills, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Young MFD (2008) Bringing knowledge back in: from social constructivism to social realism. Routledge, AbingdonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationUniversity of SunderlandSunderlandUK
  2. 2.Training DepartmentSIEMENS Energy ServicesNewcastle-upon-TyneUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joy Papier
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Post-School StudiesUniversity of the Western CapeCape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations