Advertisement

Migrants in the Labor Market: Implications for TVET

  • Joyceline Alla-MensahEmail author
  • Haya Fakoush
  • Simon McGrathEmail author
  • Volker Wedekind
Reference work entry

Abstract

Migration is increasingly being seen as a political challenge and, thus, a policy priority. Yet the integration of migrants into labor markets is a key element of the political contestations of migration. On the one hand, successful labor market integration offers the promises of wider integration into society and the prospect of migrants being net financial contributors to the host economy; on the other, xenophobia often centers on the notion of migrants “taking our jobs.” Clearly, these wider issues cannot be solved simply through TVET. The reasons for migration, immigration law, and overall labor market structure lie outside TVET’s sphere of control. Nonetheless, TVET can and does play a role in managing migration.

Conventionally, this has been largely a systemic response, focusing primarily on qualifications and certification. These do have an important role to play, but we have learned over time the limitations and costs of such approaches. In particular, opinions of employers and educational institutions regarding comparability of qualifications have proved resistant to messages of portability. We suggest that there is a need to look beneath the system level at how institutions, classrooms, and teachers can become more responsive to migration. Key issues here include language and psychosocial learning, as well as information, advice, and guidance. Migration can change classrooms and learning for the better, but vocational providers and teachers need support in capitalizing on the opportunities available.

Keywords

Migration Skills Policy Qualifications 

References

  1. Aggarwal A (2013) Recognition of prior learning: key success factors and the building blocks of an effective system. ILO, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  2. Beicht U, Walden G (2017) Transitions of young migrants to initial vocational education and training in Germany: the significance of social origin and gender. J Vocat Educ Train 69:424–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhagwati J, Hamada K (1974) The brain drain, international integration of markets for professionals and unemployment: a theoretical analysis. J Dev Econ 1(1):19–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bodnár K, Szabó L (2014) The effect of emigration on the Hungarian labour market. MNB occasional papers no. 114. Accessed via https://www.mnb.hu/letoltes/mnb-tanulmany-eng-114-1126.pdf. On 12 Jun 2008
  5. Callebert R (2016) African mobility and labor in global history. Hist Compass 14(3):116–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cedefop – European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (2011) The benefits of vocational education and training. Research paper no. 10. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. Accessed via http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/5510_en.pdf. On 5 Jun 2008
  7. Crush J (2014) Southern hub: the globalization of migration to South Africa. In: Lucas R (ed) International handbook on migration and economic development. Edward Elgar, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. De la Rama M (2018) Recognition of prior learning of migrant workers: the Philippines example. Presentation at the UNESCO-UNEVOC TVET Learning Forum, Bonn, MayGoogle Scholar
  9. Desiderio M (2016) Integrating refugees into host country labour markets: challenges and policy options. Migration Policy Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  10. Diehl O (2018) Disruption and healings: state of the migration challenge in the German VET system. Presentation at the UNESCO-UNEVOC TVET Learning Forum, Bonn, MayGoogle Scholar
  11. Dodani S, LaPorte R (2005) Brain drain from developing countries: how can brain drain be converted into wisdom gain? J R Soc Med 98(11):487–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Doomernik J, Bruquetas-Callejo M (2016) National immigration and integration policies in Europe since 1973. In: Integration processes and policies in Europe. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 57–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Doyle L, O’Toole G (2013) Refugee Council: a lot to learn: refugees, asylum seekers and post-16 learning. Refugee Council, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. European Council on Refugees and Exiles (2011) Information note on the qualification directive- 2011/95/EU. Accessed via https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/ECRE-Information-Note-on-the-Qualification-Directive-recast_October-2013.pdf. On 7 Jun 2018
  15. European Employment Policy Observatory (2016) Challenges faced by asylum seekers and refugees in successfully integrating into the labour market. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  16. Friberg JH, Midtbøen AH (2017) Ethnicity as skill: immigrant employment hierarchies in Norwegian low-wage labour markets. J Ethn Migr Stud 44(9):1463–1478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guo S (ed) (2013) Transnational migration and lifelong learning: global issues and perspectives. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Hannah (2000) Education, training and adult refugees in the UK and Australia. In: Field J, Leicester M (eds) Lifelong learning. Education across the lifespan. RoutledgeFalmer, London, pp 263–275Google Scholar
  19. Hartmann E (2008) The role of qualifications in the global migration regime. GARNET working paper no 39. University of Lausanne, WarwickGoogle Scholar
  20. Huang C, Ash N, Gough K, Post L (2018) Designing refugee compacts: lessons from Jordan. Forced Migr Rev 57:52–54Google Scholar
  21. Humphrey M, Charbit Y, Palat M (1991) The changing role of Asian labour migration in the Middle East. Rev Eur Migr Int 7(1):45–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. International Labour Migration (n.d.) Labour migration. Accessed via http://www.ilo.org/beirut/areasofwork/labour-migration/lang%2D%2Den/index.htm. On 26 Jan 2018
  23. International Organization for Migration (2017) World migration report 2018. IOM, GenevaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ip C (2013) Policy convergence and policy borrowing: what are the implications for Hong Kong’s qualifications framework? Unpublished EdD thesis, University of NottinghamGoogle Scholar
  25. Jacinto C (2011) Technical and vocational education and training in the last decade in Latin America.Background paper for the Third International Conference on TVET, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  26. Kerr SP, Kerr W, Özden Ç, Parsons C (2016) Global talent flows. J Econ Perspect 30(4):83–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kobo O (2010) ‘We are citizens too’: the politics of citizenship in independent Ghana. J Mod Afr Stud 48(1):67–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leask B (2009) Using formal and informal curricula to improve interactions between home and international students. J Stud Int Educ 13(2):205–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lenner K, Turner L (2018) Learning from the Jordan compact. Forced Migr Rev 57:48–51Google Scholar
  30. Longhi S, Nijkamp P, Poot J (2010) Meta-analyses of labour-market impacts of immigration: key conclusions and policy implications. Environ Plan C Gov Policy 28(5):819–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Madziva R, McGrath S, Thondhlana J (2016) Communicating employability: the role of communicative competence for Zimbabwean highly skilled migrants in the UK. J Int Migr Integr 17(1):235–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McGrath S (2012) Vocational education and training for development: a policy in need of a theory? Int J Educ Dev 32(5):623–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meagher K (2013) Informality, religious conflict, and governance in Northern Nigeria: economic inclusion in divided societies. Afr Stud Rev 56(3):209–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mertkan S, Gilanlioglu I, McGrath S (2016) Internationalizing higher education: from grand plans to evolving responses. J Organ Chang Manag 29(6):889–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Morgan W, Sives A, Appleton S (2006) Teacher mobility, ‘brain drain’, labour markets and educational resources in the commonwealth. Education research report 66. DFID, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. OECD (2014) International migration outlook 2014. OECD Publishing. Accessed via https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/international-migration-outlook-2014_migr_outlook-2014-en. On 11 Jun 2018
  37. Onsando G, Billett S (2009) African students from refugee backgrounds in Australian TAFE institutes: a case for transformative learning goals and processes. Int J Train Res 7(2):80–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paulet M-O (2013) France: the validation of acquired experience (VAE). In: Singh M, Duvekot R (eds) Linking recognition practices and national qualifications frameworks. UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  39. Pilz M, Li J-M, Canning R, Minty S (2017) Modularisation approaches in Initial Vocational Education: evidence for policy convergence in Europe? J Vocat Educ Train 70(1):1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ratha D, De S, Plaza S, Schuettler K, Seshan G, Wyss H, Yameogo N (2014) Migration and remittances: recent developments and outlook. Migration and development brief 27. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  41. Rietig V (2016) Moving beyond crisis: Germany’s new approaches to integrating refugees into the labour market. Migration Policy Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  42. Takahashi M, Moroz M, Peters J, Pronyk J, Barltrop R (2018) Expanding economic opportunities in protracted displacement. Forced Migr Rev 57:45–47Google Scholar
  43. United Nations (2013) International migration policies: government views and priorities. United Nations, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs (2017) International migration report, 2017. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2015) Asylum trends 2014. UNHCR, Geneva. Accessed via http://www.unhcr.org/uk/statistics/unhcrstats/551128679/asylum-levels-trends-industrialized-countries-2014.html. On 12 Jun 2018
  46. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2017) Global trends forced migration 2016. UNHCR, Geneva. Accessed via http://www.unhcr.org/globaltrends2016/. On 6 Jun 2018
  47. Vadean F, Randazzo T, Piracha M (2017) Remittances, labour supply and activity of household members left-behind. J Dev Stud.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2017.1404031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Van Mol C, De Valk H (2016) Migration and immigrants in Europe: a historical and demographic perspective. In: Garcés-Mascareñas B, Penninx R (eds) Integration processes and policies in Europe. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 31–55Google Scholar
  49. Varma R, Kapur D (2013) Comparative analysis of brain drain, brain circulation and brain retain: a case study of Indian Institutes of Technology. J Comp Policy Anal 15(4):315–330Google Scholar
  50. Watts A (2011) Career guidance and orientation. Background paper for the Third International Conference on TVET, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  51. Webb S, Faine M, Pardy J, Roy R (2017) The role of VET in the (dis) placing of migrants’ skills in Australia. J Vocat Educ Train 69(3):351–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. World Bank (2018) Personal remittances, received (% of GDP). Accessed via https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.TRF.PWKR.DT.GD.ZS?contextual=default&end=2016&locations=LS&start=1975&view=chart. On 8 Jun 2018
  53. World Health Organisation (n.d.) Mental health of refugees and migrants. Accessed via http://www.who.int/migrants/about/areas-of-work/en/index5.html. On 12 Jun 2008
  54. Yang J (2015) Recognition, validation and accreditation of non-formal and informal learning in UNESCO member states. UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  55. Young M, Allais S (eds) (2013) Implementing national qualifications frameworks across five continents. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  2. 2.School of Education, University of NottinghamNottinghamUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Margarita Pavlova
    • 1
  • Salim Akoojee
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.The Education University of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong
  2. 2.University of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  3. 3.University of NottinghamNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations