Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

2019 Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski

Beachrock

  • Robert J. TurnerEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93806-6_44

Formation and Distribution of Beachrock

Beachrock is defined by Scoffin and Stoddart ( 1987, p. 401) as “the consolidated deposit that results from lithification by calcium carbonate of sediment in the intertidal and spray zones of mainly tropical coasts.” Beachrock units form under a thin cover of sediment and generally overlie unconsolidated sand, although they may rest on any type of foundation. Maximum rates of subsurface beachrock cementation are thought to occur in the area of the beach that experiences the most wetting and drying-below the foreshore in the area of water table excursion between the neap low and high tide levels (Amieux et al. 1989; Higgins 1994). Figure 1 shows a beachrock formation displaying typical attributes.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Amieux P, Bernier P, Dalongeville R, Medwecki V (1989) Cathodoluminescence of carbonate-cemented Holocene beachrock from the Togo coastline (West Africa): an approach to early diagenesis. Sediment Geol 65:261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beier JA (1985) Diagenesis of quaternary Bahamian beachrock: petrographic and isotopic evidence. J Sediment Petrol 55:755–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernier P, Guidi JB, Bottcher ME (1997) Coastal progradation and very early diagenesis of ulramafic sands as a result of rubble discharge from asbestos excavations (northern Corsica, western Mediterranean). Mar Geol 144:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buczynski C, Chafetz HS (1993) Habit of bacterially induced precipitates of calcium carbonate: examples from laboratory experiments and recent sediments. In: Rezak R, Lavoie DL (eds) Carbonate microfabrics. Springer, New York, pp 105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cooper JAG (1991) Beachrock formation in low latitudes: implications for coastal evolutionary models. Mar Geol 98:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Emery KO, Cox DC (1956) Beachrock in the Hawaiian Islands. Pac Sci 10:382–402Google Scholar
  7. Frankel E (1968) Rate of formation of beachrock. Earth Planet Sci Lett 4:439–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ginsburg RN (1953) Beachrock in south Florida. J Sediment Petrol 23:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hanor JS (1978) Precipitation of beachrock cements: mixing of marine and meteoric waters vs. CO2-degassing. J Sediment Petrol 48:489–501Google Scholar
  10. Higgins CG (1994) Subsurface environment of beaches-temperature and salinity. Geologic Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, Seattle Meeting, p A-364Google Scholar
  11. Hopley D (1986) Beachrock as a sea-level indicator. In: van de Plassche O (ed) Sea-level research: a manual for the collection and evaluation of data. Geo Books, Regency House, Norwich, pp 157–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hopley D, Mackay MG (1978) An investigation of morphological zonation of beach rock erosional features. Earth Surf Process 3:363–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jones B, Goodbody QH (1984) Biological alteration of beachrock on Grand Cayman Island, British West Indies. Bull Can Petrol Geol 32:201–215Google Scholar
  14. Kaye CA (1959) Shoreline features and quaternary shoreline changes, Puerto Rico. U.S.G.S. professional paper, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., vol 317(B). pp 49–140Google Scholar
  15. Krumbein WE (1979) Photolithotropic and chemoorganotrophic activity of bacteria and algae as related to beachrock formation and degradation (Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai). Geomicrobiology 1:139–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McLean RF (1974) Geologic significance of bioerosion of beachrock. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international coral reef symposium, Brisbane, vol 2, pp 401–408Google Scholar
  17. Miller WR, Mason TR (1994) Erosional features of coastal beachrock and aeolianite outcrops in Natal and Zululand, South Africa. J Coast Res 10(2):374–394Google Scholar
  18. Moberly R (1968) Loss of Hawaiian littoral sand. J Sediment Petrol 38(1):17–34Google Scholar
  19. Molenaar N, Venmans AAM (1993) Calcium carbonate cementation of sand: a method for producing artificially cemented samples for geotechnical testing and a comparison with natural cementation processes. Eng Geol 35:103–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moresby RM (1835) Extracts from commander Moresbys’ report on the northern atolls of the Maldives. J R Geogr Soc Lond 5:398–404Google Scholar
  21. Russell RJ (1971) Water-table effects on seacoasts. Geol Soc Am Bull 82:2343–2348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schmalz RF (1971) Formation of beach rock at Eniwetok Atoll. In: Bricker OP (ed) Carbonate cements. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 17–24Google Scholar
  23. Scoffin TP, Stoddart DR (1987) Beachrock and intertidal cements. In: Scoffin TP (ed) An introduction to carbonate sediments and rocks. Blackie Publishing Company, Glasgow, pp 401–425Google Scholar
  24. Semeniuk V, Searle DJ (1987) Beach rock ridges/bands along a high-energy coast in southwestern Australia-their significance and use in coastal history. J Coast Res 3(3):331–342Google Scholar
  25. Stoddart DR, Cann JR (1965) Nature and origin of beach rock. J Sediment Petrol 35(1):243–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Strasser A, Davaud E, Jedoui Y (1989) Carbonate cements in Holocene beachrock: example from Bahiret el Biban, southeastern Tunisia. Sediment Geol 62:89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Taylor JCM, Illing LV (1969) Holocene intertidal calcium carbonate cementation, Qatar, Persian Gulf. Sedimentology 12:69–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Taylor JCM, Illing LW (1971) Development of recent cemented layers within intertidal sand flats, Qatar, Persian Gulf. In: Bricker OP (ed) Carbonate Cements. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, vol 19 pp 27–31Google Scholar
  29. Thorstenson DC, Mackenzie FT, Ristvet BL (1972) Experimental vadose and phreatic cementation of skeletal carbonate sand. J Sediment Petrol 42(1):162–167Google Scholar
  30. Turner RJ (1995) Bacteria and algae-mediated precipitation of calcium carbonate in Puerto Rico sand and seawater suggests that nutrient-rich ground water discharges enhance coastal sand cementation. Geologic Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, New Orleans Meeting, vol 27(6), p A-346Google Scholar
  31. Turner RJ (1999) Morphodynamic relationship between beachrock exposure and littoral zone processes on the west coast of Puerto Rico. Unpublished dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 395 pGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Arts and SciencesUniversity of WashingtonBothellUSA