Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

2019 Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski

Morphodynamic Stability of Tidal Inlet-Bay Systems

  • Ashish J. MehtaEmail author
  • Earl J. Hayter
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93806-6_385

Definition

Sandy tidal inlets and associated back-barrier bays tend to show remarkably stable morphology in spite of sea level rise. This is brought about by morphodynamics which includes the process by which an inlet-bay system achieves a stable equilibrium configuration or form. In general, the relationship between process and form can be described empirically, by analytic modeling and by numerical modeling. The most important feature of morphodynamics is a dynamic feedback between process and form as the form-restoring mechanism. Conditions under which inlet-bay systems achieve and sustain equilibrium configuration due to tide and wave forcing are briefly reviewed following the basic inlet stability model of Escoffier (1940). Several inlet-bay systems in the state of Florida have been selected as case studies.

Introduction

Tidal inlets flanking barrier islands are prominent coastal landforms along extensive sandy stretches of the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific coasts of the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Allen JRL, Duffy MJ (1998) Medium-term sedimentation on high intertidal mudflats and salt marshes in the Severn Estuary, SW Britain: the role of wind and tide. Mar Geol 150(1–4):1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bird E (2018) Barrier. In: Finkl C, Makowski C (eds) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Encyclopedia of earth sciences series. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  3. Booij N, Ris RC, Holthuijsen LH (1999) A third-generation model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation. J Geophys Res 104(C4):7649–7666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. D’Alpaos A, Lanzoni S, Marani M, Fagherazzi S, Rinaldo A (2005) Tidal network ontogeny: channel initiation and early development. J Geophys Res 110:F02001.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JF000182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davis RA (1994) Barrier island systems – a geologic overview. In: Davis RA (ed) Geology of Holocene barrier island systems. Springer, Berlin, pp 2–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dean RG, Dalrymple RA (2002) Coastal processes with engineering applications. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  7. Devine PT, Mehta AJ (1999) Modulation of microtidal inlet ebb deltas by severe sea. In: Kraus NC, McDougal WG (eds) Proceedings of coastal sediments’99. ASCE, Reston, pp 1387–1401Google Scholar
  8. de Vriend, H. (1991a). Mathematical modelling and large-scale coastal behaviour. Part 1: physical processes, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 29, 727–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. de Vriend, H. (1991b). Mathematical modelling and large-scale coastal behaviour. Part 2: predictive models, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 29, 741–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dronkers J (2016) Dynamics of coastal systems, 2nd edn. World Scientific, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  11. Escoffier FF (1940) The stability of tidal inlets. Shore Beach 8(4):114–115Google Scholar
  12. Escoffier FF, Walton TL (1979) Inlet stability solutions for tributary inflow. J Waterway Port Coastal Ocean Div ASCE 105(4):341–355Google Scholar
  13. Fagherazzi S, Palermo C, Rulli MC, Carniello L, Defina A (2007) Wind waves in shallow microtidal basins and the dynamic equilibrium of tidal flats. J Geophys Res 112:F02024.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JF000572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Finkl CW, Jesse WH (2018) Beach nourishment. In: Finkl C, Makowski C (eds) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Encyclopedia of earth sciences series. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  15. Gibeaut JC, Davis RA (1989) Morphodynamic classification of tidal inlets. In: Proceedings of the meeting of the Florida shore and beach preservation association, Tallahassee, pp 221–229Google Scholar
  16. Goodwin CR, Emmett EW, Glenne B (1970) Tidal study of three Oregon estuaries. Technical bulletin. Engineering Experiment Station, Oregon State University, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  17. Haven K (2015) Rising seas bring heavy burden to Florida’s coastal economy. Can it adapt? The Conversation, March 16, https://theconversation.com
  18. Hayter EJ, Mehta AJ (1979) Verification of changes in flow regime due to dike breakthrough closure. In: Proceedings of coastal structures’79. ASCE, New York, pp 729–746Google Scholar
  19. Hibma A, de Vriend HJ, Stive MJF (2003) Numerical modelling of shoal pattern formation in well-mixed elongated estuaries. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 57:981–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Holthuijsen LH (2007) Waves in ocean and coastal waters. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hughes SA (2002) Equilibrium cross sectional area at tidal inlets. J Coast Res 18(1):160–174Google Scholar
  22. Jain M (2002) Hydraulics and stability of multiple inlet-bay systems: St. Andrew Bay, Florida. MS thesis, University of Florida, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  23. Jain M, Mehta AJ, van de Kreeke J, Dombrowski MR (2004) Observations on the stability St. Andrew Bay inlets in Florida. J Coast Res 20(3):913–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jeuken MCJL, Wang ZB (2010) Impact of dredging and dumping on the stability of ebb-flood channel systems. Coast Eng 57:553–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Julien PY (2010) Erosion and sedimentation, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kakeh N, Coco G, Marani M (2016) On the morphodynamic stability of intertidal environments and the role of vegetation. Adv Water Resour 93(Part B):303–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keulegan GH (1967) Tidal flow in entrances: water level fluctuations of basins in communication with the seas. Technical bulletin no. 14. Committee on Tidal Hydraulics, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, VicksburgGoogle Scholar
  28. Kraus NC (2000) Reservoir model of ebb-tidal shoal evolution and sand bypassing. J Waterw Port Coast Ocean Eng 126(6):305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Krone RB (1962) Flume studies of the transport of sediment in estuarial shoaling processes. Final report. Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory and Sanitary Engineering Research Laboratory, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  30. Langbein WB (1963) The hydraulic geometry of a shallow estuary. Bull Int Assoc Sci Hydrol 8(3):84–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. LeConte LJ (1905) Discussion on, “Notes on the improvement of river and harbor outlets in the United States” by D. A. Watt., Paper No. 1009. Trans ASCE 55:306–308Google Scholar
  32. Lesser GR, Roelvink JA, van Kester JATM, Stelling GS (2004) Development and validation of a three-dimensional morphological model. Coast Eng 51(8–9):883–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marino JN, Kojima H, Mehta AJ (1990) Case of an updrift migrating inlet: Fort George inlet, Florida. In: Proceedings of the 1990 national conference on beach preservation technology. FSBPA, Tallahassee, pp 265–279Google Scholar
  34. Mehta AJ (1985) Phillips inlet channel stability and design considerations, unpublished report submitted to environmental protection systems, PensacolaGoogle Scholar
  35. Mehta AJ, Khare Y, Park K (2015) Effect of sediment load reduction in tidal channels. WIT Trans Ecol Environ 192.  https://doi.org/10.2495/ECO150291
  36. Mörner NA (2017) Changing sea levels. In: Finkl C, Makowski C (eds) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Encyclopedia of earth sciences series. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  37. Nichols MM, Biggs RB (1985) Estuaries. In: Davis RA (ed) Coastal sedimentary environments. Springer, New York, pp 77–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. O’Brien MP (1969) Equilibrium flow areas of inlets on sandy coasts. J Waterways Harbors Div ASCE 95:43–52Google Scholar
  39. O’Brien MP (1971) Field and laboratory studies on navigation channels of the Columbia River estuary. Report HEL 24-4. Hydraulic Engineering, University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Brien MP, Dean RG (1972) Hydraulic and sedimentary stability of coastal inlets. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on coastal engineering. ASCE, New York, pp 761–780Google Scholar
  41. O’Connor B, Nicholson J, Rayner R (1991) Estuary geometry as a function of tidal range. In: Proceedings of the 22nd international conference on coastal engineering. ASCE, New York, pp 3050–3062Google Scholar
  42. Otvos EG (2017a) Barrier island formation and development modes. In: Finkl C, Makowski C (eds) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Encyclopedia of earth sciences series. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  43. Otvos EG (2017b) Coastal barrier preservation and destruction. In: Finkl C, Makowski C (eds) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Encyclopedia of earth sciences series. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  44. Powell MA, Thieke RJ, Mehta AJ (2006) Morphodynamic relationships for ebb and flood delta volumes at Florida’s tidal entrances. Ocean Dyn 56:295–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rodriguez HN, Mehta AJ (2001) Modeling muddy coast response to waves. J Coast Res SI27:137–148Google Scholar
  46. Roelvink JA, Reniers AJHM (2010) A guide to model coastal morphology. World Scientific, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  47. Soulsby RL, Hamm L, Klopman G, Myrhaug D, Simons RR, Thomas GP (1993) Wave-current interaction within and outside the bottom boundary layer. Coast Eng 21(1):41–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stelzenmuller WB (1965) Tidal characteristics of two estuaries in Florida. J Waterways Harbors Div ASCE 91(1):25–36Google Scholar
  49. Tran TT, van de Kreeke J, Stive MJF, Walstra D-JR (2012) Cross-sectional stability of inlets: a comparison between numerical and empirical approaches. Coast Eng 60:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. van de Kreeke J, Brouwer RL (2017) Tidal inlets: hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. van Maanen B, Coco G, Bryan K (2011) A numerical model to simulate the formation and subsequent evolution of tidal channel networks. Aust J Civ Eng 9(1):61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. van Maanen B, Coco G, Bryan K (2013) Modelling the effects of tidal range and initial bathymetry on the morphological evolution of tidal embayments. Geomorphology 191:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Walton TL, Adams WD (1976) Capacity of inlet outer bars to store sand. In: Proceedings of the 15th international conference on coastal engineering. ASCE, New York, pp 1919–1937Google Scholar
  54. Wicker CF (1955) The prototype and model Delaware Estuary. In: Proceedings of the 6th general meeting of IAHR, The Hague, paper A12, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  55. Winterwerp JC, van Kesteren WGM (2004) Introduction to the physics of cohesive sediment in the marine environment. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  56. Winterwerp JC, Wang ZB, Stive MJF, Arends A, Jeuken C, Kuijper C, Thoolen PMC (2001) A new morphological schematization of the Western Scheldt estuary, The Netherlands. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR symposium on river, coastal and estuarine morphodynamics, Obihiro, Japan, pp 525–534Google Scholar
  57. Wright LD, Thom BG (1977) Coastal depositional land-forms, a morphodynamic approach. Prog Phys Geogr 1:412–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nutech Consultants, Inc.GainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Coastal EngineeringUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Environmental LabUS Army Engineering Research and Development CenterVicksburgUSA