Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

2019 Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski


  • Brian GreenwoodEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93806-6_28

Sedimentary ridges, both symmetric and asymmetric, and generally larger than bedforms that characterize the upper shoreface of coastal zones dominated by waves are called wave-formedbars. They were recognized as early as 1845 on the marine coasts of Europe (Elie de Beaumont), by 1851 in the Great Lakes of North America (Desor), and subsequently on marine and lacustrine coasts worldwide (see Schwartz, 1982, pp. 135–139). However, confusion still surrounds this term because of its use for ridges with a wide range of size, morphology, location, and orientation relative to the shoreline. Also, the term bar has been used in a variety of environments, from subaerial to those dominated by tidal currents or river currents. Furthermore, the present understanding of the origin(s) and dynamics of wave-formed bars is still incomplete.

Shepard (1950) called shore-parallel ridges and troughs longshorebars and troughs, equating them with the terms ball and low of Evans (1940), and associated them...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Physical SciencesUniversity of TorontoScarboroughCanada