Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

2019 Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski

Mining of Coastal Materials

  • W. R. OsterkampEmail author
  • R. A. Morton
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93806-6_215

Mining is the process of extracting rock and mineral material from near-surface sources of the earth. It may include small, local borrow pits with no supporting infrastructure or large-scale operations with permanent facilities for removing, loading, and transporting the resource. Considering only coastal areas, those adjacent to the shoreline and extending seaward through the breaker (surf) zone (U.S. Army Coastal Engineering Research Center 1966) and landward through the highest surfaces subject to modern processes of wave alteration, the area represented (based on estimates by Kuenen 1950) is a little less than 1% of the global surface. The coastal zone, as used here, includes all parts of barrier islands, lagoons, tidal flats, and mangrove swamps, but does not include embayments and fiords, permanently exposed parts of deltas, lands bordering estuaries (such as the Bay of Fundy), and other inland tide-influenced areas.

Energy conditions within the coastal zone, as evidenced by the...

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US Geological SurveyTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Center for Coastal GeologyUS Geological SurveySt. PetersburgUSA