Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

2019 Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski

Meteorological Effects on Coasts

  • Gregory W. StoneEmail author
  • Robert A. Muller
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93806-6_211

The most dramatic and long-lasting meteorological impact on many coasts is in response to storms. Virtually, every continent on earth is variously impacted by storms, the degree to which being a function of many factors including storm intensity, duration and path, as well as antecedent geology of the inner shelf and coast. Cyclones that exert important controls on coasts are generally categorized as hurricanes, tropical, and extratropical storms. Land-and sea-breezes are observed along many coasts and are in response to differential temperatures during day and night; onshore winds during the day develop nearshore sea state, whereas offshore flow in the evening causes wave decay close to shore. Neither effect can equal the impacts of waves, currents, and winds generated during cyclones. The low latitudes are dominated by tropical storms and hurricanes, whereas the mid-and higher-latitudes experience extratropical storms and weather fronts. Frontal systems are associated with...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Dolan R, Davis RE (1992) Rating northeasters. Mariners Weather Log 36(3):4–11Google Scholar
  2. Elsner JB, Kara AB (1999) Hurricanes of the North Atlantic. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Gray WM (1999) On the causes of multi-decadal climate change and prospects for increased Atlantic basin hurricane activity in the coming decades. In: 10th symposium on global change studies. American Meteorological Society, pp 183–186Google Scholar
  4. Hurd WE (1939) Weather on the Atlantic and Pacific oceans: North Pacific Ocean. Mon Weather Rev 67(9):356–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Mather JR, Adams H III, Yoshioka GA (1964) Coastal storms of the eastern United States. J Appl Meteorol 3:693–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Muller RA, Stone GW (2001) A climatology of tropical storm and hurricane strikes to enhance vulnerability prediction for the southeast U.S. coast. J Coast Res 17:949–956Google Scholar
  7. Schumann SA, Moser J, Johnson GA, Walker ND, Hsu SA (1995) An overview of a strong winter low in the Gulf of Mexico, 12–13 March 1993. Nat Weather Dig 20(1):11–25Google Scholar
  8. Stone GW, Grymes JM, Armbruster CA, Huh OK (1996) Overview and impacts of hurricane opal on the Florida coast. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 77:181, 184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Stone GW, Wang P, Pepper DA, Grymes JM, Roberts HH, Zhang X, Hsu SA, Huh OK (1999) Studying the importance of hurricanes to the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 80:301, 305CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Coastal Studies InstituteLouisiana State University (LSU)Baton RougeUSA