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Endophytes of Ginseng

  • Hosakatte Niranjana MurthyEmail author
  • Dayanand Dalawai
  • So-Young Park
  • Kee-Yoeup Paek
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is a well-known medicinal plant which is used as a tonic in oriental medicine. Ginsenosides are the most important secondary metabolites of ginseng which have pharmacological effects including anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-stress properties. Bacterial and fungal endophytes associated with ginseng plants have been isolated, characterized from its natural distribution range. Endophytes of ginseng showed tissue or organ, age, genotype, and geographical location specificity with their distribution and abundance. Bacillus, Burkholderia, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas are major bacterial genera isolated from ginseng. Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Entrophospora, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Phoma, Setophoma, Verticillium, and Xylaria are the most frequent fungal genera isolated from ginseng. Majority of ginseng endophytes depicted many of biological activities such as plant growth promotion, antimicrobial, antitumor, ginsenoside biosynthesis, and biotransformation activities. In this chapter we presented the recent progress made in the area of biology of ginseng endophytes.

Keywords

Bioactive compounds Biotransformation Endophytes Ginseng Ginsenosides Saponins Secondary metabolites 

Abbreviations

A-549

Adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells (lung cancer cell line)

B-16

Murine tumor cell line

CF

Colonization frequency

CFU

Colony-forming units

HepG2

Human epithelial type G2 (liver cancer cell line)

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

IAA

Indole-3-acetic acid

IC50

50% inhibition concentration

L-1210

Leukemia 1210

L-929

Mouse fibroblast cell line

LC/MS

Liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy

MK-1

Human epithelial cell line

MKN45

Human gastric cancer cell line

MS/MS

Mass spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy

OVCAR-2

Human epithelial carcinoma cell line of the ovary (ovarian cancer cell line)

PDB

Potato dextrose broth

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by DST-PURSE-Phase II program and UGC-BSR mid-career award grant [No. F.19-223/2018(BSR)].

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hosakatte Niranjana Murthy
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Dayanand Dalawai
    • 1
  • So-Young Park
    • 2
  • Kee-Yoeup Paek
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyKarnatak UniversityDharwadIndia
  2. 2.Research Center for the Development of Advanced Horticultural TechnologyChungbuk National UniversityCheongjuRepublic of Korea

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