Endophytes as Pollutant-Degrading Agents: Current Trends and Perspectives
Bioremediation is based on biological systems, bacteria, fungi, and plants. They are effective systems to treat a polluted site because they are able to modify the chemical structure of the contaminant into less hazardous end products. Investigations regarding the theme have immensely accelerated during the last years, what originated a great number of articles involving the terms “phytoremediation” and “bioremediation.” Initially the term phytoremediation was defined as being the use of plants for the degradation of polluting hazardous chemicals. However, the discovery that healthy plants could be containing endosymbiotic groups of microorganisms, often bacteria or fungi, led to the notion that these microorganisms could be, partly at least, responsible for the degradation of the pollutants. This review focuses on this proposed partnership in the bioremediation process, taking into account investigations conducted during the last 5 years.
KeywordsBioremediation Endophytes Pollutant-degrading agents Phytoremediation Xenobiotics
The authors thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Proc. 404898/2016-5) for funding this study. R.C.G. Corrêa thanks CNPq for financing her postdoctoral research at State University of Maringá (Process number 167378/2017-1). R.M. Peralta (Project number 307944/2015-8) and A. Bracht (Project number 304090/2016-6) are CNPq research grant recipients.
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