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The Interaction Between Plants and Bacterial Endophytes Under Salinity Stress

  • Amr Fouda
  • Saad El Din HassanEmail author
  • Ahmed Mohamed Eid
  • Emad El-Din Ewais
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Salinity leads to a decline in agricultural production and an increase in the percentage of salinity-affected land which exceeds 20% of the world’s cultivated land. Endophytes are a class of endosymbiotic microorganisms widely distributed among plants and colonize intercellular and intracellular spaces of all plant compartments and do not cause any apparent infection or significant morphological change. Furthermore, endophytes have many beneficial effects on host plants including adaptation to biotic and abiotic stress such as salinity through different activities including the production of scavengers like reactive oxygen species that are produced in plants when exposed to salinity, production of ACC deaminase enzyme which is responsible for lowering the levels of ethylene in the plant, nitrogen fixation, production of compatible solutes, antibiotics, and phytohormones. The use of endophytic microbes is of particular interest in the development of agricultural applications that ensure improved performance of crops under salinity stress.

Keywords

Endophytes Endophyte-plant interaction Salinity stress Salt tolerance Plant adaptation Phytohormones ACC deaminase 

Abbreviations

ABA

Abscisic acid

ACC

1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate

EC

Electrical conductivity

ECe

Electrical conductivity of the saturation extract

ESP

Exchangeable sodium percentage

IAA

Indole-3-acetic acid

ISR

Induced systemic resistance

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SAR

Sodium absorption ratio

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Amr Fouda
    • 1
  • Saad El Din Hassan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmed Mohamed Eid
    • 1
  • Emad El-Din Ewais
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of ScienceAl-Azhar UniversityNasr City/CairoEgypt

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