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Sambucus nigra Berries and Flowers Health Benefits: From Lab Testing to Human Consumption

  • Ângelo C. Salvador
  • Ricardo J. R. Guilherme
  • Armando J. D. Silvestre
  • Sílvia M. RochaEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

European elder plant, Sambucus nigra L., has been used as an important part of the folk medicine and as multipurpose foods and dietary supplements. The scientific developments in nutrition research, in evaluation of biological activities, and in prospection of bioactive compounds reveal a set of potential health benefits associated with S. nigra berries and flowers. This chapter aims to briefly cover aspects linked to elder plant taxonomic classification, geographic distribution, and typologies of products available in the market. Current challenges regarding in vitro and in vivo assays will be also discussed. Despite in vitro studies are often used to predict the health benefits due to the high amount of generated data and their low cost, the use of in vivo assays is crucial to predict such health benefits, as the real contribution of foods, extracts, or specific bioactive compounds to human health is largely modulated by their bioavailability that cannot be accessed at in vitro level. Thus, the main findings regarding the potential health benefits of S. nigra-based preparations using in vitro and/or in vivo assays, namely, anti-infective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anticancer, and antidiabetic, will be critically revisited. Finally, current challenges related to nutrivigilance systems, which are crucial to ensure consumer health and safety, will be presented.

Keywords

Sambucus nigra L. Elderflowers Elderberries Bioavailability Health benefits Nutrivigilance 

Abbreviations

ABTS

2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothialzoline-6-sulfonic acid)

ACN

Anthocyanins

AOx

Antioxidant activity

BHA

Butylated hydroxyanisole

BHT

Butylated hydroxytoluene

Cmax

Maximal plasma concentration

COX

Cyclooxygenase

DPPH

2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

F

Female

FRAP

Ferric reducing antioxidant power

Glc

Glucose

GSH

Glutathione peroxidase

IL

Interleukins

iNOS

Nitric oxide synthase

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

M

Male

MDA

Malondialdehyde

NF-kB

Nuclear factor kB

NO

Nitric oxide

NP

Nanoparticle

ORAC

Oxygen radical absorption capacity

Peo

Peonidin

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

PPAR

Proliferator-activated receptor

QR

Quinone reductase

RIP

Ribosomal-inactivating proteins

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

Sam

Sambubioside

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TE

Trolox equivalents

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor α

TPC

Total phenolic content

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks are due to FCT/MEC for the financial support to the QOPNA research Unit (FCT UID/QUI/00062/2013) and CICECO (FCT UID/CTM/50011/2013), through national funds and where applicable co-financed by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. Â. Salvador thanks the grant AgroForWealth: Biorefining of agricultural and forest by-products and wastes – integrated strategic for valorisation of resources toward society wealth and sustainability (CENTRO-01-0145-FEDER-000001), funded by Centro2020, through FEDER and PT2020.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ângelo C. Salvador
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ricardo J. R. Guilherme
    • 1
  • Armando J. D. Silvestre
    • 2
  • Sílvia M. Rocha
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.QOPNA, Department of ChemistryUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.CICECO- Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of ChemistryUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal

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