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Nutrients and Nutraceuticals from Seafood

  • V. Venugopal
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Seafood comprising of finfish and shellfish significantly contribute to world food security. Seafood species are nutritious since they are rich in proteins and other nutrients including peptides, essential amino acids, long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins including vitamin B12, and minerals such as calcium, copper, zinc, sodium, potassium, selenium, iodine, and others. Commercial fish processing generates about 30 million metric tons of discards consisting of shell, head, bones, intestines, fin, skin, etc. These discards are rich in several nutraceuticals and biologically active compounds, which include oils containing omega-3 PUFA; carotenoids such as astaxanthin and β-carotene; proteins including myosin, collagen, and gelatin; enzymes; essential amino acids and peptides; polysaccharides and their derivatives including chitin, chitosan, glucosamine, and glycosaminoglycans; and mineral-based compounds. These compounds, depending on their nature, can have varying physiological functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antitumor, anti-obesity, anticoagulant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other activities, which are valuable in healthcare. Marine biotechnology offers several techniques to isolate these nutraceuticals from seafood and their processing discards. This article briefly surveys nutrients and nutraceutical contents of seafood and their potential benefits in human nutrition and healthcare and current commercial status.

Keywords

Seafood Processing discards Nutrients Nutraceuticals Health benefits Marine biotechnology 

Abbreviations

AAS

Amino acid score

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CS

Chondroitin sulfate

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EAA

Essential amino acids

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FDA

Food and Drug Administration, USA

FSA

Food Standard Agency, UK

MUFA

Monounsaturated fatty acid

NMFS

National Marine Fisheries Service, USA

PER

Protein efficiency ratio

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SFA

Saturated fatty acid

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

WHO

World Health Organization

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Venugopal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Former Scientific Officer Food Technology DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CenterMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Visiting faculty, Department of Food Science and TechnologyKerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences (KUFOS)KochiIndia

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