Advertisement

A Novel Delivering Agent for Bioactive Compounds: Chewing Gum

  • Ibrahim PalabiyikEmail author
  • Haniyeh Rasouli Pirouzian
  • Nevzat Konar
  • Omer Said Toker
Reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Functional food concept is one of the hot topics in the food industry. In recent years, people want to consume food products having health beneficial effect as well as nutritive characteristics. Regarding functional food development, foods have also advantages and disadvantages in terms of delivering bioactive compounds due to formulation (interaction of the bioactive compound with other ingredients, calorie value provided) and production process (mechanical and thermal processes applied during production). When considering the factors restricting usage of the food products as a delivery system, chewing gum is one of the most up-and-coming products in many aspects: (i) simplicity of the formulation prevents the activity of bioactive compound by interaction, (ii) level of mechanical and thermal stresses applied during production, (iii) enabling the release of targeted molecule in a controlled and sustained manner, (iv) different consumption behavior abolishing calorie intake concern since it is only chewed without swallowing, and (v) holding time in mouth. Usage of encapsulated bioactive compounds can improve the release behavior of the functional ingredient. Mastication process and the formed matrix/structure of the chewing gum also influence the release of the bioactive compounds. The researches about improving functionality of chewing gum have indicated that chewing gum can be used as a delivery system for transportation of the desired bioactive compound to body/targeted site. However, during functional chewing gum development, formulation, production process, mastication process, and type/form of bioactive compounds should be considered to achieve the product with required functional properties.

Keywords

Chewing gum Functionality Bioavailability Confectionery Delivery system 

Abbreviations

CMG

Chios mastic gum

EC

Epicatechin

ECG

Epicatechin gallate

EGC

Epigallocatechin

EGCG

Epigallocatechin gallate

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FM

Fusion method

HPMC

Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose

MCG

Medicated chewing gum

MCGs

Membrane coating granules

MS

Mutans streptococci

NRT

Nicotine replacement therapy

ODF

Oral disintegrating film

PVAc

Polyvinyl acetates

Qt

Quercetin

TP

Tea polyphenols

UGTs

UDP-glucuronosyltransferases enzymes

References

  1. 1.
    EPHAC (2010) Towards a healthier, more sustainable CAP (The European Agriculture and Public Health Consortiums position paper). http://eurohealthnet.eu/sites/eurohealthnet.eu/files/publications/EPHAC-Position
  2. 2.
    Granato D, Nunes DS, Barba FJ (2017) An integrated strategy between food chemistry, biology, nutrition, pharmacology, and statics in the development of functional foods: a proposal. Trends Food Sci Technol 62:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mark-Herbert C (2004) Innovation of a new product category-functional foods. Technovation 24:713–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Menrad K (2003) Market and marketing of functional food in Europe. J Food Eng 56:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Simões LDS, Madalena DA, Pinheiro AC, Teixeira JA, Vicente AA, Ramos LÓ (2017) Micro- and nano bio-based delivery systems for food applications: In vitro behavior. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 243:23–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hooper L, Cassidy A (2006) A review of the health care potential of bioactive compounds. J Sci Food Agric 86:1805–1813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Halliwell B (1995) How to characterize an antioxidant: an update. Biochem Soc Symp 61:73–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Santos MG, Carpinteiro DA, Thomazini M, Rocha-Selmi GA, da Cruz AG, Rodrigues CEC, Favaro-Trindade CS (2014) Coencapsulation of xylitol and menthol by double emulsion followed by complex coacervation and microcapsule application in chewin gum. Food Res Int 66:454–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abbasi S, Rahimi S, Azizi MH (2009) Influence of microwave-microencapsulated citric acid on some sensory properties of chewing gum. J Microencapsul 26:90–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang X, Wang G, Zhangi X (2004) Release kinetics of catechins from chewing gum. J Pharm Sci 93:293–299PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Valduga E, Lazzari MR, Xardanega R, Di Luccio M (2012) Evaluation of sugar inversion in chewing gum added of sodium lactate. J Food Process Eng 35:37–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Potineni RV, Peterson DG (2008) Influence of flavor solvent on flavor release and perception in sugar-free chewing gum. J Agric Food Chem 56:3254–3259PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fritz D (2008) Formulation and production of chewing gum and bubble gum. Kennedy’s Books Ltd, EssexGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Konar N, Palabiyik I, Toker OS, Sagdic O (2016) Chewing gum: production, quality parameters and opportunities for delivering bioactive compounds. Trends Food Sci Technol 55:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Potineni RV, Peterson DG (2008) Mechanisms of flavor release in chewing gum: Cinnamaldehyde. J Agricultural Food Chem 56:3260–3267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cherukuri RS, Marschall-helman E, Hriscisce FT (1985) Non-adhesive chewing gum base composition. New York, Warner-Lambert CompanyGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pratik S, Asif K, Ramana MV, Mitul P, Mahesh K (2011) Chewing gum: a modern era of drug delivery. Int Res J Pharm 2:7–12Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gadhavi AG, Patel BN, Patel DM, Patel CN (2011) Medicated chewing gum a 21st century drug delivery system. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2:1961–1974Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ingole B, Daga AS, Joshi UM, Biyani KR (2012) Chewing gum: a mobile drug delivery system. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 14:106–114Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Niederer B, Le A, Cantergiani E (2003) Thermodynamic study of two different chewing-gum bases by inverse gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A 996:189–194PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aslani A, Ghannadi A, Raddanipour R (2015) Design, formulation and evaluation of aloe vera chewing gum. Adv Biomed Res 4:175PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sameja K, Raval V, Asodiya H, Patadiya D (2011) Chewing gum: a modern approach to oral mucosal drug delivery. Int J Pharm Res Dev 4:001–016Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rose K, Steinbüchel A (2005) Biodegradation of natural rubber and related compounds: recent insights into a hardly understood catabolic capability of microorganisms. App Environ Microbiol 71:2803–2812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Farber TM, Clewell AE, Endres JR, Hauswirth J (2010) Safety assesment of a novel ingredient for removable chewing gum. Food Chem Toxico l48:831–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cook RB (1996) Confections comprising a proteinaceous chewable base. US patent 5,482,722Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mcgowan BA, Padua GW, Lee S-Y (2005) Formulation of corn zein chewing gum and evaluation of sensory properties by the time-intensity method. J Food Sci 70:475–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mehta FF, Triverdi P (2015) Formulation and characterization of Biodegredable medicated chewing gum delivery system for motion sickness using corn Zein as gum former. Trop J Pharm Res 14(5):753–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mehta F, Rajagopalan R, Trivedi P (2013) Formulation and texture characterization of environment friendly chewing gum. Int J of Pharm Tech Res 5(1):222–232Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Palabiyik I, Toker OS, Konar N, Öner B, Demirci AS (2017) Development of a natural chewing gum from plant based polymer. J Polym Environ.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-017-1094-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nagasamy VD, Toprani PS, Mukherejee S, Tulasi K (2014) Medicated chewing gums – a review. Int. J Pharm Sci 4:581–586Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Asija R, Patel S, Asija S (2012) Oral dosages forms: medicine containing chewing gum: a review. J Drug Deliv Ther 2:90–95Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Smith AP, Woods M (2012) Effects of chewing gum on the stress and work of university students. Appetite 58:1037–1040PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nabors LO (2001) Alternatives sweeteners. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lakkis JM (2016) Encapsulation and controlled release technologies in food systems. Wiley Blackwell, UKGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bahoshy BJ, Klose RE, Nordstrom HA (1976) Chewing gums of longer lasting sweetness and flavor. General Foods Corp US 3:943,258Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bunczek MT, Urensis P (1993) Aspartame stability in chewing gum using an acid gelatin system. US Patent 5,192,561Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sharma SC, Yang KY (1986) Chewing gum compositions containing novel sweetener delivery systems and method of preparation. US Patent 4,597,970Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Haahr AM, Pilsgaard CF, Stahnke LH, Bredie WLP, Refsgaard HHF (2003) Effect of sweetener on release of flavor compounds from chewing gum. In: Le Quere JL, Etievant PX (eds) Flavor research at the Dawn of the twenty-first century, proceedings of the 10th Weurman flavor research symposium. Intercept LLC, ParisGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tanzer JM, Freedman ML, Fitzgerald RJ (1984) Virulence of mutants defective in glucosyltransferase, dextranmediated aggregation, or dextran activity. In: Magenhagen S, Rosan B (eds) Molecular basis of oral microbial adhesion. American Society for Microbiology, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Edwardson S, Birkhed D, Majare B (1977) Acid production from lycasin, maltitol, sorbitol and xylitol by oral streptococci and lactobacilli. Acta Odontol Scand 35:257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thaweboon S, Thaweboon B, Soo-Ampon S (2004) The effect of xylitol chewing gum on mutans streptococci in saliva and dental plaque. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35:1024–1027PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kleber CJ, Milleman JL, Putt MS, Nelson BJ, Proskin HM (1998) Clinical effects of baking soda chewing gum on plaque and gingivitis. J Dent Res 77:A290Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Çaglar E, Kavaloglu SC, Kuscu OO, Sandalli N, Holgerson PL, Twetman S (2007) Effect of chewing gums containing xylitol or probiotic bacteria on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. Clin Oral Invest 11:425–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Aslani A, Rostami F (2015) Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system. J Res Med Sci 20:403–411PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Surana AS (2010) Chewing gum: a friendly oral mucosal drug delivery system. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 4:68–71Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Semwal R, Semwal DK, Badoni R (2010) Chewing gum: a novel approach for drug delivery. J Appl Res 10:115–123Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rassing MR (1994) Chewing gum as a drug delivery system. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 13:89–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Imfeld T (2006) Chlorhexidine-containing chewing gum. Schweiz Monatsschrz 116:476–483Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bijella MFTB, Brighenti FL, Bijella MFB, Buzalaf MAR (2005) Fluoride kinetics in saliva after the use of a fluoride containing chewing gum. Braz Oral Res 19:25–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Aslani L, Ghannadi A, Mortazavi S, Torabi M (2013) Design, formulation and evaluation of medicinal chewing gum by the extract of Salvadora Persica. Life Sci J 10:47–55Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kralikova E, Kozak JT, Rasmussen T, Gustavsson G, Houezec JL (2009) Smoking cessation or reduction with nicotine replacement therapy: a placebo-controlled double blind trial with nicotine gum and inhaler. BMC Public Health 9:433PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Aslani A, Rafiei S (2012) Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum. Adv Biomed Res 1:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Reineccius GA (1993) Controlled release techniques in food industry. In: Risch SJ, Reineccius GA (eds) Encapsulation and controlled release of food ingredients, ACS Symposium Series, vol 590. American Chemical Society, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Greenblatt HC, Dombroski M, Klishevich W, Kirkpatrik J, Bajwa I, Garrison W, Redding BK (1993) Encapsulation and controlled release of flavors and fragrances. In: Karsa DR, Stephenson RA (eds) Encapsulation and controlled release. Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lew CW (2000) Encapsulation additives. US Patent 6,056,992Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Taylor AJ (2002) Release and transport of flavors in vivo: physicochemical, physiological, and perceptual considerations. Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety 1:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sostmann K, Potineni PV, McMillan E, Antenucci RN (2009) In: Hansel A, Dunkl J (eds) 4th international conference on proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and its applications. Innsbruck, Innsbruck University PressGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    De Roos KB, Wolswinkel K (1994) Non-equilibrium partition model for predicting flavor release in the mouth, in trends in flavor research, proceedings of the 7th Weurman flavor research symposium, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, 15-18 1993. In: Maarse H, van den Heij DJ (eds). Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Harrison M (2000) Mathematical models of release and transport of flavors from foods in the mouth of the olfactory epithelium. In: Roberts DD, Taylor AJ (eds) Flavor Release. Oxford University Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ferrazzano GF, Cantile T, Coda M, Alcidi B, Sangianantoni G, Ingenito A, Stasio MD, Volpe MG (2016) In vivo release kinetics and antibacterial activity of novel polyphenols-enriched chewing gums. Molecules 21:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hansson A, Andersson J, Leufven A (2001) The effect of sugars and pectin on flavor release from a soft drink-related model system. Food Chem 72:363–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Roberts DD, Elmore JS, Langley KR, Bakker J (1996) Effects of sucrose, guar gum, and carboxy-methylcellulose on the release of volatile flavor compounds under dynamic conditions. J Agric Food Chem 44:1321–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Baek I, Linforth RST, Blake A, Taylor AJ (1999) Sensory perception is related to the rate of change of volatile concentration in-nose during eating of model gels. Chem Senses 24:155–160PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Delarue J, Loescher E (2004) Dynamic of food preferences. A case study with chewing gums. Food Qual Prefer 15:771–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chandran S, Ravi S, Vipin KV, Augusthy AR (2014) Formulation and evaluation of medicated chewing gums containing methyl prednisolone IP. Int J ChemTech Res 6:4810–4816Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ko S, Gunasekaran S (2014) Controlled release of food ingredients. In: Nano- and micro-encapsulation for foods. Wiley, Chichester, pp 325–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Peltzer MA, Salvay AG, Delgado JF, Wagner JR (2017) Use of edible films and coatings for functional food developments: a review. In: Functional foods: sources, health effects future perspectives. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Charanioti C, Nikoloudaki A, Tzia C (2015) Saffron and beetroot extracts encapsulated in maltodextrin, gum arabic, modified starch and chitosan: incorporation in chewing gum system. Carbohyd Polym 127:252–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Arvanitoyannis IS, Varzaka TH (2008) Vegetable waste management: treatment methods and potential uses of treated waste. In: Arvanitoyannis IS (ed) Waste management for the food industries. Elsevier. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Aguiar J, Estevinho BN, Santos L (2016) Microencapsulation of natural antioxidants for food application – the specific case of coffee antioxidants – a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 58:21–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Nakagawa K (2014) Nano- and microencapsulation of flavor in food systems. In: Kwak HS (ed) Nano- and microencapsulation for foods. Wiley, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Marquez AL, Perez MP, Wagner JR (2017) Double emulsions: potential applications for the elaboration of functional foods. In: Nelson DL (ed) Functional foods: sources, health effects and future perspectives. Nova Science Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mohos F (2010) Confectionery and chocolate engineering: principles and applications. Willey, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Minifie BW (1989) Chocolate, cocoa and confectionery: science and technology, 3rd edn. AVI Book, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rey A, Gonzalez R, Martinez-de-Juan JL, Bendito J, Mulet A (2007) EMG assessment of chewing gum behaviour for food evaluation: influence of personality characteristics. Food Qual Prefer 18:585–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dawes C, Pedersen AML, Villa A, Ekström J, Proctor GB, Vissink A, Aframian D, McGowan R, Aliko A, Narayana N, Sia YW, Joski RK, Jensen SB, Kerr AR, Wolf A (2015) The functions of human saliva: a review sponsored by the world workshop on oral medicine VI. Arch Oral Bio 60:863–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Katschinski M (2000) Nutritional implications of cephalic phase gastrointestinal responses. Appetite 34:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Engelen L (2004) A rough guide to texture. Oral physiology and texture perception of semi solids. Dissertation, University of UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ting Y, Jiang Y, Ho CT, Huang Q (2014) Common delivery systems for enhancing in vivo bioavailability and biological efficacy of nutraceuticals. J Funct Foods 7:112–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yang Y, Yin J, Shao B (2011) Simultaneous determination of five aluminum lake dyes in chewing gum by HPLC with photodiode array detection. Food Addit Contam 28:1159–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tedesco MP, Monaco-Lourenço CA, Carvalho RA (2017) Characterization of oral disintegrating film of peanut skin extract-potential route for buccal delivery of phenolic compounds. Int J Biol Macromol 97:418–425PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Watanabe S, Dawes C (1988) The effects of different foods and concentrations of citric acid on the flow rate of whole saliva in man. Arch Oral Biol 33:1–5PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Heintze U, Birkhed D, Björn H (1983) Secretion rate and buffer effect of resting and stimulated whole saliva as a function of age and sex. Swed Dent J 7:227–238PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Richardson CT, Feldman M (1986) Salivary response to food in humans and its effect on gastric acid secretion. Am J Phys 250:G85–G91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Edgar M, Dawes C, O’Mullane D (2004) Saliva and oral health, 3rd edn. BDJ Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Dawes C, Macpherson LMD (1992) Effects of nine different chewing gums and lozenges on salivary flow rate and pH. Caries Res 26:176–182PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    De Almeida PDV, Gregio AMT, Machado MAN, De Lima ADS, Azevedo AAS, Azevedo LR (2008) Salvia composition and functions: a comprehensive review. J Comtemp. Dent Pract 9:72–80Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Woolnough JW, Bird AR, Monro JA, Brennan CS (2010) The effect of a brief salivary a-amylase exposure during chewing on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles. Int J Mol Sci 11:2780–2790PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Neyraud E, Palicki O, Schwartz C, Nicklaus S, Feron G (2012) Variability of human saliva composition: possible relationships with fat perception and liking. Arch Oral Biol 57:556–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    WL X, Lewis D, Broundloud JE, Morgenstern MP (2008) Mechanism, design and motion control of a linkage chewing device for food evaluation. Mech Mach Theory 43:376–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lucas PW (2004) The structure of the mammalian mouth. In: Dental functional morphology: How teeth work. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lucas PW (2004) How the mouth operates. In: Dental functional morphology: How teeth work. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mongini F, Tempia-Valenti G, Benvegnu G (1986) Computer-based assessment of habitual mastication. J Prosthet Dent 55:638–649PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Blee N, Linforth R, Yang N, Brown K, Taylor A (2011) Variation in aroma release between panelists consuming different types of confectionary. Flavour Fragr J 26:186–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lucas PW (2004) Tooth shape. In: Dental functional morphology: How teeth Work. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Krause AJ (2010) Real-time release of volatile and non-volatile components from chewing gum using a mechanical chewing device. Dissertation, University of MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Anderson K, Throckmorton GS, Buschang BH, Hayasaki H (2002) The effects of bolus hardness on the masticatory kinematics. J Oral Rehabil 29:689–696PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Peyron MA, Lassauzay C, Woda A (2002) Effects of increased hardness on jaw movement and muscle activity during chewing of visco-elastic model foods. Exp Brain Res 142:41–51PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Foster K, Woda A, Peyron M-A (2006) Effect of texture of plastic and elastic model foods on the parameters of mastication. J Neurophysiol 95:3469–3479PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wu B, Kulkarni K, Basu S, Zhang S, Hu M (2011) First-pass metabolism via UDP-glucuronosyltransferase: a barrier to oral bioavailability of phenolics. J Pharm Sci 100:3655–3681PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mallery SR, Budendorf DE, Larsen MP, Pei P, Tong M, Holpuch AS, Larsen PE, Stoner GD, Fields HW, Chan KK, Ling Y, Liu Z (2011) Effects of human oral mucosal tissue, saliva, and oral microflora on intraoral metabolism and bioactivation of black raspberry anthocyanins. Cancer Prev Res 4:1209–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Satheesh Madhav NV, Shakya AK, Shakya P, Singh K (2009) Orotransmucosal drug delivery systems: a review. J Control Release 140:2–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mizrahi B, Domb AJ (2008) Mucoadhesive polymers for delivery of drugs to the oral cavity. Rec Pat Drug Deliv Formul 2:108–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Martins ICF, Raposo NRB, Mockdeci HR, Polonini HC, de Oliveira FA, Fabri GMC, das Graças AMCM (2017) Delivering resveratrol on the buccal mucosa using mucoadhesive tablets: a potential treatment strategy for inflammatory oral lesions. Curr Drug Deliv.  https://doi.org/10.2174/1567201814666170726102558PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wang ST, Chou CT, Su NW (2017) A food-grade self-nanoemulsifying delivery system for enhancing oral bioavailability of ellagic acid. J Funct Foods 34:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Pagare PK, Satpute CS, Jadhav VM, Kadam V (2012) Medicated chewing gum: a novel drug delivery system. J Appl Pharm Sci 2:40–54Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ginsburg I, Koren E, Shalish M, Kanner J, Kohen R (2012) Saliva increases the availability of lipophilic polyphenols as antioxidants and enhances their retention in the oral cavity. Archives Oral Biol 57:1327–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Trivedi H, Xu T, Worrell C, Panaligan K (2005) US Patent 11/256,861Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jacobsen J, Bjerregaard S, Pedersen M (1999) Cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of antimycotics intended to act in the oral cavity–drug supersaturation, toxicity on TR146 cells and release from a delivery system. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 48:217–224PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kamonpatana K, Failla ML, Kumar PS, Giusti MM (2014) Anthocyanin structure determines susceptibility to microbial degradation and bioavailability to the buccal mucosa. J Agri Food Chem 62:6903–6910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Smith AJ, Moran J, Dangler LV, Leight RS, Addy M (1996) The efficacy of an antigingivitis chewing gum. J Clin Periodontol 23:19–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Blumenthal G (2005) US Patent 11/166,543Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ooshima T, Minami T, Aono W, Tamura Y, Hamada S (1994) Reduction of dental plaque deposition in humans by oolong tea extract. Caries Res 28:146–149PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Edgar KJ, Buchanan CM, Debenham JS (2001) Advances in cellulose ester performance and application. Prog Polym Sci 26:1605–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Greenberg M, Urnezis P, Tian M (2007) Compressed mints and chewing gum containing magnolia bark extract are effective against bacteria responsible for oral malodour. J Agric Food Chem 55:9465–9469PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Gelski J (2006) Tea’s weight loss potential cited as additional benefits. Food business News 28:38–40Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Lee MJ, Lambert JD, Prabhu S, Meng X, Lu H, Maliakal P, Ho CT, Yang CS (2004) Delivery of tea polyphenols to the oral cavity by green tea leaves and black tea extract. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 13:132–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Blair DW (2010) Use of starch inclusion complexes for improved delivery of dietary polyphenols to the oral cavity by chewing gum. Dissertation, the Pennsylvania State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Aslani A, Ghannadi A, Rostami F (2016) Design, formulation and evaluation of ginger medicated chewing gum. Adv Biomed Res 5:130PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kehayoglou A, Doxastakis G, Kiosseoglou V (1994) Compressional properties of Chios mastic. In: Charalambous G (ed) Food flavors, ingredients and composition, proceedings of the 7th international flavor conference Samos, Greece, 1993. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Paraskevopoulou A, Kiosseoglou V (2016) Chios mastic gum and its food applications. In: Kristbergsson K, Otles S (eds) Functional properties of traditional foods. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Gluskin AE, Qazi MW (2006) US Patent 11/887,284Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Mostafavi SA, Varshosaz J, Arabian S (2014) Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking. Adv Biomed Res 3:92PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Porsgaard TK (2005) US Patent 12/159,524. https://www.google.com/patents/US20080299250
  125. 125.
    Liping L, Xihui Z (2009) Chinese Patent CN 200810114357. http://www.google.com/patents/CN101595935A?cl=en
  126. 126.
    Si H (2016) Chinese Patent CN 201610642022. https://www.google.com/patents/CN106260468A?cl=en&hl=tr

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ibrahim Palabiyik
    • 1
    Email author
  • Haniyeh Rasouli Pirouzian
    • 2
  • Nevzat Konar
    • 3
  • Omer Said Toker
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food EngineeringNamik Kemal UniversityTekirdağTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and TechnologyTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Faculty of Architecture and Engineering, Department of Food EngineeringSiirt UniversitySiirtTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Food EngineeringYildiz Technical UniversityİstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations