African Women, Technology and ICTs
Technology has a lot to offer women in both their public and private lives. In view of this, the Strategic Development Goal (SDG) 5b seeks to utilize enabling technology, particularly information and communications technology, for the empowerment of women. Through a desk review, this chapter looked at the position of African women in the development, deployment, and utilization of technology in the broad sense with special focus on information and communication technology. Factors that inhibit women’s full utilization of technology and some policy directives have also been enumerated in the chapter. Various interventions in the area of women and technologies have yielded results. African women are not only users of technology, but they are breaking through as developers in the technology space as well. In spite of infrastructural and socioeconomic challenges, women in Africa are capable of harnessing the full potential of technology to improve their lives. They should therefore be perceived as such and be supported accordingly.
KeywordsWomen Gender Africa Digital divide ICTs Developers
- Andela. (2019). About us. Retrieved from https://andela.com/about/ May 29, 2019.
- AU. (2018). AU hosts 2018 Girls in ICT Day. Retrieved from https://aufoundation.africa/au-hosts-2018-girls-in-ict-day/ January 30, 2019.
- AWIT. (n.d.). About us. Retrieved from https://africanwomenintech.com/about-us/ May 30, 2019.
- Bailur, S., Masiero, S., & Tacchi, J. (2018). Gender, mobile, and development: The theory and practice of empowerment. Introduction. Information Technologies & International Development (Special Edition), 14, 96–104.Google Scholar
- Bhandari, A. (2019). Gender inequality in mobile technology access: The role of economic and social development. Information, Communication & Society, 22(5), 678–694. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2018.1563206. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2018.1563206, May 28, 2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bisimwa, K., Brown, I., & Johnston, K. J. (2018). Mobile phones use by urban refugees in South Africa: Opportunities and challenges. Scholarspace.Manoa.Hawaii.Edu. Retrieved from https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/50158, September 10, 2018.
- Chib, A. (2010). The Aceh Besar midwives with mobile phones project: Design and evaluation perspectives using the information and communication technologies for healthcare development model. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 15(3), 500–525. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2010.01515.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Csikszentmihalyi, C., Mukundane, J., Rodrigues, G. F., Mwesigwa, D., & Kasprzak, M. (2018). The space of possibilities: Political economies of technology innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – CHI’18, pp. 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1145/3173574.3173880.
- Developers in Vogue (2019). Developers in Vogue. Retrieved from: https://developersinvogue.org May 28, 2019
- Ekwealor, V. (2016). 5 powerful women in African tech you probably never heard of. Retrieved from https://techpoint.africa/2016/06/14/powerful-women-african-tech/ May 30, 2019.
- Graham, S. (2018). A shifting frontier: How mobile money is reshaping the gender gap in financial inclusion. Retrieved from https://finca.org/blogs/how-mobile-money-is-reshaping-the-gender-gap-in-financial-inclusion/ January 30, 2019.
- ITU. (2017). ICT facts and figures. Retrieved from https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/facts/ICTFactsFigures2017.pdf, May 28, 2019.
- ITU. (2018). ICTS, LDCs and the SDGs – Achieving universal and affordable Internet in the least developed countries, 1–128. Retrieved from https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-d/opb/ldc/D-LDC-ICTLDC-2018-PDF-E.pdf, February 21, 2019.
- ITU. (2019). Digital inclusion: Gender. Retrieved from https://www.itu.int/en/mediacentre/Pages/2019-PR05.aspx, May 28, 2019.
- Kinya, W. (2017). Why the world needs Africa’s women developer. Retrieve from https://news.itu.int/why-the-world-needs-africas-women-developers/, May 28, 2019.
- Kwapong, O. (2005). Exploring innovative approaches for using ICT for rural women’s adult education in Ghana. Ajol.Info. Retrieved from https://www.ajol.info/index.php/gjds/article/view/35026, September 10, 2018.
- Kwapong, O. A. T. F. (2007). Widening access to tertiary education for women in Ghana through distance education. Dergipark.Ulakbim.Gov.Tr. Retrieved from http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/tojde/article/view/5000102771 September 10, 2018.
- Kwapong, O. A. T. F. (2008). Policy implications for using ICTs for empowerment of rural women in Ghana. ERIC. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1102936, September 10, 2018.
- Kwapong, O. (2010). Equitable access: Information and communication technology for open and distance learning. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=YObdCx5iFXUC&oi=fnd&pg=PA2007&dq=OLIVIA+KWAPONG&ots=fdIfnX7RbL&sig=MXPbFFffBJirVecs-X8JXddifV0, September 10, 2018.
- Msoffe, G., Chengula, A., Kipanyula, M. J., Mlozi, M. R. S., & Sanga, C. A. (2018). Poultry farmers’ information needs and extension advices in Kilosa, Tanzania: Evidence from mobile-based extension, advisory and learning system (MEALS). Library Philosophy and Practice, (February), 1–17. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/2007090626?accountid=26666%0A, http://yh8zs7tr6m.search.serialssolutions.com/directLink?&atitle=Poultry+Farmers%27+Information+needs+and+Extension+advices+in+Kilosa%2C+Tanzania%3A+Evidence+from+Mobile-based+Extension%2C+A, September 10, 2018.
- Olatokun, W. (2007). Availabilty, accessbility and use of. ICT by Nigerian women academics, 12(2), 13–33.Google Scholar
- Olatokun, W., Wyche, S., Wide, W., & Foundation, W. (2017). Exploring women’s everyday mobile phone experiences in Nairobi, Kenya. Interacting with Computers, 12(3), 391–402.Google Scholar
- Otte, P. P., Tivana, L. D., Phinney, R., Bernardo, R., Piroschka, P., Tivana, L. D., & Bernardo, R. (2018). The importance of gender roles and relations in rural agricultural technology development : A case study on solar fruit drying in Mozambique. Gender, Technology and Development, 0(0), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/09718524.2018.1444442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Porter, G., Hampshire, K., Abane, A., Munthali, A., Robson, E., Tanle, A., & Bango, A. (2018). Connecting with home, keeping in touch: Physical and virtual mobility across stretched families in sub-Saharan Africa. Africa, 88(2), 404–424. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0001972017000973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sene, F. (2018). Young African women turn to coding. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/africarenewal/magazine/december-2017-march-2018/young-african-women-turn-coding, May 28, 2019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sherrie, P. (2018). Top 5 female programmers (coders) in Africa. Retrieved from http://clickbrick.tech/2018/03/08/top-5-female-programmers-africa/, May 29, 2019.
- UN. (1995). Beijing declaration and platform for action. In The Fourth World Conference on Women. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/pdf/BDPfA%20E.pdf, September 4, 2018.
- UN. (2018). Progress towards the sustainable development goals, 1–19. Retrieved from https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/files/report/2018/secretary-general-sdg-report-2018%2D%2DEN.pdf, February 21, 2019.
- UN. (n.d.). Strategic development goals. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/gender-equality/, February 21, 2019.
- Veselinovic, M. (2016). Want to join the world’s most exclusive all-female developer team? Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2016/03/24/africa/andela-all-female-team/index.html, May 28, 2019.
- Watkins, J. O. T., Goudge, J., Gómez-Olivé, F. X., & Griffiths, F. (2018). Mobile phone use among patients and health workers to enhance primary healthcare: A qualitative study in rural South Africa. Social Science & Medicine, 198(January), 139–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SOCSCIMED.2018.01.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Bank. (2016). World development report. Retrieved from https://www.scribd.com/document/365728569/World-Development-Report-2016-pdf, September 4, 2018.
- Wyche, S. (2017). Exploring women’ s everyday Mobile phone experiences in Nairobi, Kenya. Interacting with Computers, 29(3), 391–402.Google Scholar
- Wyche, S., & Olson, J. (2018). Kenyan women’ s rural realities, Mobile internet access, and “Africa rising”. Information Technologies & International Development, 14, 33–47.Google Scholar