Advertisement

Antimicrobial Compounds (Phytoanticipins and Phytoalexins) and Their Role in Plant Defense

  • Anupama Razdan TikuEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Plants synthesize and accumulate an arsenal of antimicrobial secondary metabolites in order to protect themselves from invasion of foreign elements (microbes, pathogens, and predators). Few of these metabolites act as constitutive chemical barriers against the microbial attack (phytoanticipins) while others as inducible antimicrobials (phytoalexins). Their properties show them as promising plant and human disease-controlling agents. In the present review we are discussing the role of both types of antimicrobial compounds involved in plant defense mechanism. Phytoanticipins are preformed antimicrobial compounds in plants that are unique in action for their property of being synthesized even before the attack of pathogen or infection, i.e., they exist in healthy plants in their biologically active forms (constitutive). Other forms of phytoanticipins such as cyanogenic glycosides and glucosinolates occur as inactive precursors stored in healthy tissues and get activated only in response to tissue damage. Activation of these compounds involves hydrolases (plant enzymes) which are released only after the breakdown of cells. Still we consider them as constitutive metabolites as they are immediately derived from preexisting constituents. Phytoalexins are LMW antimicrobial compounds produced by plants in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. They are formed from remote precursors only in response to pathogen attack after de novo synthesis of phytoalexin biosynthesizing enzymes. We have discussed the key features of both the types of diverse group of molecules such as chemical structures, biosynthesis, regulatory mechanisms, biological activity against pathogens, and molecular engineering of both the plant secondary metabolites.

Keywords

Secondary metabolites Antimicrobial compounds Phytoanticipins Phytoalexins Plant defense mechanisms 

References

  1. 1.
    Tiku AR (2018) Antimicrobial compounds and their role in plant defense. In: Singh A, Singh I (eds) Molecular aspects of plant-pathogen interaction. Springer, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mansfield JW (1999) Antimicrobial compounds and resistance: the role of phytoalexins and antianticipins. In: Slusarenko AJ, Fraser RSS, VanLoon LC (eds) Mechanisms of resistance to plant diseases. Kluwer, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    VanEtten HD, Mansfield JW, Bailey JA, Farmer EE (1994) Letter to the editor. Two classes of plant antibiotics: phytoalexins versus “phytoanticipins”. Plant Cell 6:1191–1192PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    González-Lamothe R, Mitchell G, Gattuso M, Diarra MS, Malouin F, Bouarab K (2009) Plant antimicrobial agents and their effects on plant and human pathogens. Int J Mol Sci 10.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms10083400PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Muller KO, Borger H (1940) Experimentelle untersuchungen über die Phytophthora resistenz der Kartoffel. Arbeit Biol Reichsant Land Forstwirtsch 23:189–231Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bednarek P, Osbourn A (2009) Plant-microbe interactions: chemical diversity in plant defense. Science 324(5928):746–748.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1171661.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    DonnezD JP, Clément C, Courot E (2009) Bioproduction of resveratrol and stilbene derivatives by plant cells and microorganisms. Trends Biotechnol 27:706–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fry FH, Neal O, Okarter N, Bayton-Smith C, Kershaw MJ, Talbot NJ, Jacob C (2005) Use of a substrate/alliinase combination to generate antifungal activity in situ. J Agric Food Chem 53:574–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Virtanen AI, Matikkala EJ (1959) Isolation of S-methyl and S-propyl cysteine sulfoxide from onion and antibiotic activity of crushed onion. Acta Chem Scand 13:1898–1900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McMurchy RA, Higgins VJ (1984) Trifolirhizin and maackiain in red clover: changes in Fusarium roseum “Avenaceum”-infected roots and in vitro effects on the pathogen. Physiol Plant Pathol 25(2):229–238.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-4059(84)90061-4. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0048405984900614. ISSN 0048-4059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dewick PM (1975) Pterocarpan biosynthesis: chalcone and isoflavone precursors of demethylhomopterocarpin and maackiain in Trifolium prafense. Phytochemistry 14:979–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Osbourn AE (1996) Preformed antimicrobial compounds and plant defense against fungal attack. Plant Cell 8(10):1821–1831.  https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.8.10.1821CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hostettmann KA, Manton A (1995) Saponins. Chemistry and pharmacology of natural products. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Iijima Y, Watanabe B, Sasaki R, Takenaka M, Ono H, Sakurai N, Umemoto N, Suzuki H, Shibata D, Aoki K (2013) Steroidal glycoalkaloid profiling and structures of glycoalkaloids in wild tomato fruit. Phytochemistry 95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.07.016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Price KR, Johnson IT, Fenwick GR (1987) The chemistry and biological significance of saponins in food and feeding stuffs. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 26:27–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Osbourn AE, Clarke BR, Lunness P, Scott PR, Daniels MJ (1994) An oat species lacking avenacin is susceptible to infection by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 45:457–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gus-Mayer S, Brunner H, Schneider-Poetsch HAW, Lottspeich F, Eckerskorn C, Grimm R, Rüdiger W (1994a) The amino acid sequence previously attributed to a protein kinase or a TCP1-related molecular chaperone and co-purified with phytochrome isa β-glucosidase. FEBS Lett 347:51–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gus-Mayer S, Brunner H, Schneider-Poetsch HAW, Rüdiger W (1994b) Avenacosidase from oat: purification, sequence analysis and biochemical characterization of a new member of the BGA family of P-glucosidases. Plant Mol Biol 26:909–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Roddick JG (1974) The steroidal glycoalkaloid α-tomatine. Phytochemistry 13:9–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith CA, MacHardy WE (1982) The significance of tomatine in the host response of susceptible and resistant tomato isolines infected with two races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Phytopathology 72:415–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pegg GF, Woodward S (1986) Synthesis and metabolism of α-tomatine in tomato isolines in relation to resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 28:187–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Challinor VL, De Voss JJ (2013) Open-chain steroidal glycosides, a diverse class of plant saponins. Nat Prod Rep 30:429–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fenwick GR, Price KR, Tsukamota C, Okubo K (1992) Saponins. In: DMello JP, Duffus CM, Duffus JH (eds) Toxic substances in crop plants. Cambridge, UK, Royal Society of Chemistry, pp 285–327Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roddick JG, Drysdale RB (1984) Destabilization of liposome membranes by the steroidal glycoalkaloid a-tomatine. Phytochemistry 23:543–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pedras MS, Yaya E (2015) Plant chemical defenses: are all constitutive antimicrobial metabolites phytoanticipins? Nat Prod Commun 10:209–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yamane H, Konno K, Sabelis M, Takabayashi J, Sassa T, Oikawa H (2010) Chemical defence and toxins of plants. J Hosp Infect 4:339–385.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-008045382-8.00099-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Davis RH (1991) Glucosinolates. In: DMello JP, Duffus CM, Duffus JH (eds) Toxic substances in crop plants. Cambridge, UK, Royal Society of Chemistry, pp 202–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Poulton JE, Li CP (1994) Tissue leve1 compartmentation of(R)-amygdalin and amygdalin hydrolase prevents large-scale Cyanogenesis in undamaged Prunus seeds. Plant Physiol 104:29–35PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Miller JM, Conn EE (1980) Metabolism of hydrogen cyanide by higher plants. Plant Physiol 65:1199–1202PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hughes MA (1991) The cyanogenic polymorphism in Trifolium repens L. (white clover). Heredity 66:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fry WE, Myers DF (1981) Hydrogen cyanide metabolism by fungal pathogens of cyanogenic plants. In: Vennesland B, Knowles CJ, Conn EE, Westley J, Wissing F (eds) Cyanide in biology. London, Academic, pp 321–334Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang P, Matthews DE, VanEtten HD (1992) Purification and characterization of cyanide hydratase from the phytopathogenic fungus Gloeocercospora sorghi. Arch Biochem Biophys 298:569–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fry WE, Millar RH (1972) Cyanide degradation by an enzyme from Stemphylium loti. Arch Biochem Biophys 151:468–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cluness MJ, Turner PD, Clements E, Brown DT, OReilly C (1993) Purification and properties of cyanide hydratase from Fusarium lateritium and analysis of the corresponding chy1 gene. J Gen Microbiol 139:1807–1815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mithen R (1992) Leaf glucosinolate profiles and their relationship to pest and disease resistance in oilseed rape. Euphytica 63:71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mithen R, Magrath R (1992) Glucosinolates and resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans in wild and cultivated Brassica species. Plant Breed 108:60–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chew FS (1988) Biological effects of glucosinolates. In: Cutler HG (ed) Biologically active natural products-potential use in agriculture. Proceedings of the ACS symposium 380. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 155–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mithen R, Lewis BG, Fenwick GR, Heaney RK (1986) Ln vitro activity of glucosinolates and their products against Leptosphaeria maculans. Trans Br Mycol Soc 87:433–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Angus JF, Gardner PA, Kirkegaard JA, Desmarchelier JM (1994) Biofumigation: isothiocyanates released from Brassica roots inhibit growth of the take-all fungus. Plant Soil 162:107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mari M, lori R, Leoni O, Marchi A (1993) In vitro activity of glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates against postharvest fruit pathogens. Ann Appl Biol 123:155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Geu-Flores F, Nielsen MT, Nafisi M, Møldrup ME, Olsen CE, Motawia MS, Halkier BA (2009) Glucosinolate engineering identifies gamma-glutamyl peptidase. Nat Chem Biol 5:575–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Moldrup ME, Geu-Flores F, de Vos M, Olsen CE, Sun J, Jander G, Halkier BA (2012) Engineering of benzylglucosinolate in tobacco provides proof-of-concept for dead-end trap crops genetically modified to attract Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth). Plant Biotechnol J 10:435–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Niemeyer HM (2009) Hydroxamic acids derived from 2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one: key defense chemicals of cereals. J Agric Food Chem 57:1677–1696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Makowska B, Bakera B, Rakoczy-Trojanowska M (2015) The genetic background of benzoxazinoid biosynthesis in cereals. Acta Physiol Plant 37.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-015-1927-3
  45. 45.
    Korte AR, Yandeau-Nelson MD, Nikolau BJ, Lee YJ (2015) Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Anal Bioanal Chem 407:2301–2309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Christensen LP, Brandt KJ (2006) Bioactive polyacetylenes in food plants of the Apiaceae family: occurrence, bioactivity and analysis. Pharm Biomed Anal 41:683–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lecomte M, Berruyer R, Hamama L, Boedo C, Hudhommed P, Bersihand S, Arul J, N’Guyen G, Gatto J, Guilet D, Richomme P, Simoneau P, Briard M, Le Clerc V, Poupard P (2012) Inhibitory effects of the carrot metabolites 6-methoxymellein and falcarindiol on development of the fungal leaf blight pathogen Alternaria dauci. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 80:58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mosblech A, Feussner I, Heilmann I (2009) Oxylipins: structurally diverse metabolites from fatty acid oxidation. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:511–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Prost I, Dhondt S, Rothe G (2005) Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of plant oxylipins supports their involvement in defense against pathogens. Plant Physiol 139:1902–1913PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kono Y, Kojima A, Nagai R (2004) Antibacterial diterpenes and their fatty acid conjugates from rice leaves. Phytochemistry 65:1291–1298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sobolev VS, Horn BW, Potter TL, Deyrup ST, Gloer JB (2006) Production of stilbenoids and phenolic acids by the peanut plant at early stages of growth. J Agric Food Chem 54:3505–3511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Curir P, Marchesini A, Danieli B, Mariani F (1996) 3-Hydroxyacetophenone incarnation is a phytoanticipin active against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. Phytochemistry 41:447–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dewick PM (2009) Medicinal natural products: a biosynthetic approach, 3rd edn. Wiley, Chichester, p 539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Deverall BJ (1982) Introduction. In: Bailey JA, Mansfield JW (eds) Phytoalexins. Blackie, Glasgow/London, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jeandet P, Clément C, Courot E, Cordelier S (2013) Modulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis in engineered plants for disease resistance. Int J Mol Sci 14:14136–14170PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ahuja I, Kissen R, Bones AM (2012) Phytoalexins in defense against pathogens. Trends Plant Sci 17:73–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jeandet P, Hébrard C, Deville M-A, Cordelier S, Dorey S, Aziz A, Crouzet J (2014) Deciphering the role of phytoalexins in plant-microorganism interactions and human health. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 19:18033–18056.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schmelz EA, Huffaker A, Sims JW, Christensen SA, Lu X, Okada K, Peters RJ (2014) Biosynthesis, elicitation and roles of monocot terpenoid phytoalexins. Plant J 79:659–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Langcake P, Pryce RJ (1976) The production of resveratrol by Vitis vinifera and other members of the Vitaceae as a response to infection or injury. Physiol Plant Pathol 9:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jeandet P, Delaunois B, Conreux A, Donnez D, Nuzzo V, Cordelier S, Clément C, Courot E (2010) Biosynthesis, metabolism, molecular engineering and biological functions of stilbene phytoalexins in plants. Biofactors 36:331–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ren D, Liu Y, Yang KY, Han L, Mao G, Glazebrook J, Zhang S (2008) A fungal-responsive MAPK cascade regulates phytoalexin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5638–5643PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jeandet P, Delaunois B, Aziz A, Donnez D, Vasserot Y, Cordelier S, Courot E (2012) Metabolic engineering of yeast and plants for the production of the biologically active hydroxystilbene, resveratrol. J Biomed Biotechnol.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/579089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cruickshank IAM, Perrin DR (1960) Isolation of a phytoalexin from Pisum sativum L. Nature 187:799–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Pedras MSC, Okanga FI, Zaharia IL, Khan AG (2000) Phytoalexins from crucifers: synthesis, biosynthesis and biotransformation. Phytochemistry 53:161–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Poloni A, Schirawski J (2014) Red card for pathogens: phytoalexins in sorghum and maize. Molecules 19:9114–9133PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lo SC, de Verdier K, Nicholson R (1999) Accumulation of 3-deoxyanthocyanidin phytoalexins and resistance to Colletotrichum sublineolum in sorghum. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 55:263–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lin Park H, Lee SW, Jung KH, Hahn TR, Cho MH (2013) Transcriptomic analysis of UV-treated rice leaves reveals UV-induced phytoalexin biosynthetic pathways and their regulatory networks in rice. Phytochemistry 96:57–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Favaron F, Lucchetta M, Odorizzi S, Pais da Cunha A, Sella L (2009) The role of grape polyphenols on trans-resveratrol activity against Botrytis cinerea and of fungal laccase on the solubility of putative grape PR proteins. J Plant Pathol 91:579–588Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Timperio A, D’Alessandro A, Fagioni M, Magro P, Zolla L (2011) Production of the phytoalexins trans-resveratrol and delta-viniferin in two economy-relevant grape cultivars upon infection with Botrytis cinerea in field conditions. Plant physiology and biochemistry: PPB/Société française de physiologie végétale 50:65–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2011.07.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kodama O, Miyakawa J, Akatsuka T, Kiyosawa S (1992) Sakuranetin, a flavanone phytoalexin from ultraviolet-irradiated rice leaves. Phytochemistry 31:3807–3809.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)97532-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Shih C-H, Chu I, Yip W, Lo C (2006) Differential expression of two flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase cDNAs involved in biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments and 3-deoxyanthocyanidin phytoalexins in sorghum. Plant Cell Physiol 47:1412–1419.  https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcl003CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Echeverri L, Torres F, Quinones W, Cardona G, Archbold R, Roldan J, Brito I, Luis JG, Lahlou E-H (1997) Danielone, a phytoalexin from papaya fruit. Phytochemistry 44:255–256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(96)00418-9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hart JH, Hillis WE (1974) Inhibition of wood-rotting fungi by stilbenes and other polyphenols in Eucalyptus sideroxylon. Phytopathology 64(7):939–948.  https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-64-939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Deavours BE, Dixon RA (2005) Metabolic engineering of isoflavonoid biosynthesis in alfalfa. Plant Physiol 138:2245–2259PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kaimoyo E, VanEtten HD (2008) Inactivation of pea genes by RNAi supports the involvement of two similar O-methyltransferases in the biosynthesis of (+)-pisatin and of chiral intermediates with a configuration opposite that found in (+)-pisatin. Phytochemistry 69:76–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Graham TL, Graham MY, Subramanian S, Yu O (2007) RNAi silencing of genes for elicitation orbiosynthesis of 5-deoxyisoflavonoids suppresses race-specific resistance and hypersensitive cell death in Phytophthora sojae infected tissues. Plant Physiol 144:728–740PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rowe HC, Walley JW, Corwin J, Chan EKF, Dehesh K, Kliebenstein DJ (2010) Deficiencies in jasmonate-mediated plant defense reveal quantitative variation in Botrytis cinerea pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog 6:e1000861PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Robert-Seilaniantz A, MacLean D, Jikumaru Y, Hill L, Yamaguchi S, Kamiya Y, Jones JDG (2011) The microRNA miR393 re-directs secondary metabolite biosynthesis away from camalexin and towards glucosinates. Plant J 67:218–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ward EW, Cahill DM, Bhattacharyya MK (1989) Abscisic acid suppression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and mRNA, and resistance of soybeans to Phytophthora megasperma f.s.p. glycinea. Plant Physiol 91:23–27PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mohr P, Cahill DM (2001) Relative roles of glyceollin, lignin and the hypersensitive response and the influence of ABA in compatible and incompatible interactions of soybeans with Phytophthora sojae. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 58:31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Grosskinsky DK, Naseem M, Abdelmoshem UA, Plickert N, Engelke T, Griebel T, Zeier J, Novak O, Strand M, Pfeifhofer H et al (2011) Cytokinins mediate resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in tobacco through increased antimicrobial phytoalexin synthesis independent of salicylic acid signaling. Plant Physiol 157:815–830PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ono E, Wong HL, Kawasaki T, Hasegawa M, Kodama O, Shimamoto K (2001) Essential role of the small GTPase Rac in disease resistance of rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:759–764PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Formela M, Samardakiewicz S, Marczak L, Nowak W, Narozna D, Waldemar B, Kasprowicz-Maluski A, Morkunas I (2014) Effects of endogenous signals and Fusarium oxysporum on the mechanism regulating genistein synthesis and accumulation in yellow lupine and their impact on plant cell cytoskeleton. Molecules 19:13392–13421PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Parkhi V, Kumar V, Campbell LM, Bell AA, Shah J, Rathore KS (2010) Resistance against various fungal pathogens and reniform nematode in transgenic cotton plants expressing Arabidopsis NRP1. Transgenic Res 19:959–975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hain R, Reif HJ, Krause E, Langebartels R, Kindl H, Vornam B, Wiese W, Schmelzer E, Schreier P, Stöcker R et al (1993) Disease resistance results from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant. Nature 361:153–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schmidlin L, Poutaraud A, Claudel P, Mestre P, Prado E, Santos-Rosa M, Wiedemann-Merdinoglu S, Karst F, Merdinoglu D, Hugueney P (2008) A stress-inducibleresveratrol O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of pterostilbene in grapevine. Plant Physiol 148:1630–1639PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyRamjas College, University of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations