Decrypting Early Perception of Biotic Stress on Plants

  • Simon A. Zebelo
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


Plant response to biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens involves different defense mechanisms. Plant defense strategies against biotic stressors start in the plasma membrane, where the biotic stressors interact physically by mechanical damage and chemically by introducing elicitors or triggering plant-derived signaling molecules. The concept of “early” is relative and depends on the dynamics of plant cells responding to stimuli. The stimuli triggered by different biotic stressors result in different rates of plant responses, which often depend on the intensity and the rate of the stimulus. In plant responses to stimuli, the term “early” is often used to indicate the first visible or detectable plant response. Plant early biotic stress responses vary based on the type of the stressors. Based on the type of stressors, the rate of early responses is classified as (1) early responses to microbes, (2) early responses to herbivores, and (3) early response to nearby plants. This chapter discusses the variability in early plant responses to stimuli caused by biotic stressors and the importance of understanding the timing of plant responses to changing biotic stimuli.


Biotic stimuli Early signaling Signal transduction Molecular patterns 



Arbuscular mycorrhiza


Brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1)-associated kinase 1


Botrytis-induced kinase 1


Brassinosteroid-insensitive 1


Calcium−/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase


Ca2+-dependent protein kinases


Chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1


Common symbiotic signaling pathway


Damage-associated molecular patterns


Elongation factor-Tu


Effector-triggered immunity


Fatty acid amino acid conjugates


Flagellin-sensitive 2


Gibberellic acid


Green leaf volatile


Herbivore-associated molecular patterns


Indole acetic acid




Leucine-rich repeat


Lysine motifs


Microbe-associated molecular patterns


Methyl salicylate


MAMP-triggered immunity


Nodulation (Nod) factors


Oral secretions


Pathogen-associated molecular patterns


Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria




Pattern recognition receptors


PAMP-triggered immunity


Receptor-like kinases


Receptor-like proteins


Reactive oxygen species


Transmembrane potential


Wound-induced protein kinase


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Natural SciencesUniversity of Maryland Eastern ShorePrincess AnneUSA

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