“Coffee Bean-Related” Agroecological Factors Affecting the Coffee

  • Ahsan Hameed
  • Syed Ammar Hussain
  • Hafiz Ansar Rasul SuleriaEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


Coffee is the most consumed processed beverage aside from water, and green coffee beans are the most traded agriculture commodity after petroleum in the world. The agricultural production of green coffee beans and consumption of coffee have been increasing by 17% and 2% at an annual rate during the previous decades, respectively. The credit of increasing coffee production and consumption goes to its alluring organoleptic characteristics. The organoleptic or final cup quality characteristic of coffee is a multifactorial and complex trait, and both agricultural and postharvest processing factors influence this multifaceted trait significantly. Agroproduction technology of coffee influences 40% cup quality attributes of coffee beverage, whereas remaining 60% quality attributes are determined by postharvest processing technology. In this chapter, the relationship of organoleptic or final cup quality attributes with agricultural and environmental factors was reviewed. The analysis focused on how these factors affect the physical quality attributes of coffee beans in addition to the biochemical cup quality attributes. An overview of agricultural and environmental factors of coffee identified a critical impact of these factors in determining the physical and biochemical cup quality attributes. Geographical topography (especially altitude, slope of attitude, its steepness) was found to be the major element which also dictated the scope of influence of subsequent agricultural and environmental factors. Coffee verities or genetics, rainfall, frost, temperature, soil fertilization status, sun and shade ecosystems, and harvesting strategies played a decisive role in shaping not only the final physical and biochemical cup quality attributes but also in postharvest processing approaches. Each coffee variety (both C. arabica and C. robusta) is specified to a specific region with a set of its own inherent quality characteristics which played an important role in the production of certified specialty, organic, or other same kind of coffees. Moreover, there are still some bottlenecks that need to be addressed in order to fully understand the critical relationship of agricultural and environmental factors with final physical and biochemical cup quality attributes.


Cup quality Organoleptic characteristics Sensory attributes Preharvesting variables Agricultural factors Coffee body Coffee biochemistry and coffee flavor 



We are highly indebted to the anonymous reviewers for putting down their valuable efforts in improving this article.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahsan Hameed
    • 1
    • 2
  • Syed Ammar Hussain
    • 2
    • 3
  • Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory for Yeast Molecular & Cell Biology, The Research Center of Fermentation Technology, School of Agricultural Engineering & Food ScienceShandong University of TechnologyZibo, ShandongChina
  2. 2.Colin Ratledge Center for Microbial Lipids, School of Agriculture Engineering and Food ScienceShandong University of TechnologyZiboChina
  3. 3.Department of Biology, South Texas Center of Emerging Infectious Diseases (STCEID)University of TexasSan AntonioUSA
  4. 4.UQ Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Faculty of MedicineThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  5. 5.Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental SciencesDeakin UniversityWaurn PondsAustralia
  6. 6.School of Agriculture and FoodThe University of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

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