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Protein-Based Hydrogels

  • Reza Panahi
  • Mahsa Baghban-Salehi
Living reference work entry
Part of the Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series book series (POPOC)

Abstract

Hydrogels have the capability to absorb large amounts of water or biological fluids into their three-dimensional hydrophilic polymer networks. These attractive materials are used to develop food additives, superabsorbents, wound dressing compounds, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical implants and also applied in tissue engineering, regenerative medicines, and controlled-release process. Hydrogels can be obtained from synthetic and/or natural resources. Synthetic hydrogels exhibit high water absorption capacities and proper mechanical strength, although their applications are being limited because of low biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as the toxicity arisen from unreacted monomers remained in the gel structure. Natural hydrogels are often derived from polysaccharides and proteins. Protein-based hydrogels have substantial advantages such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, tunable mechanical properties, molecular binding abilities, and intelligent responses to external stimuli such as pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Therefore, this kind of hydrogels is known as smart biomaterials for controlled release, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and other applications. Protein can be converted to hydrogel using physical, chemical, or enzymatic treatments. To improve their mechanical properties, hybrid hydrogels are synthesized by combining natural polymers with synthetic ones. The main approach to obtain hybrid hydrogels is grafting natural polymers with synthetic one and vice versa. This chapter intends to look over protein-based hydrogels. After brief introduction of protein and its structure, the properties of proteins and peptides used to develop hydrogels, as well as their preparation methods are discussed. The potential applications of these polypeptide-based hydrogels in the fields of superabsorbent development, tissue engineering, and controlled release are reported. Characterization methods for protein-based hydrogels are covered in the final section to determine rheological properties, morphology, and thermal stability.

Keywords

Hydrogels Protein and peptide Superabsorbent Controlled release Tissue engineering Characterization Rheological behavior 

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran (CCERCI)Shahrak-e Pajoohesh, TehranIran

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