Trends in Work and Employment in Rapidly Developing Countries

  • Martin HydeEmail author
  • Sobin George
  • Vaijayanthee Kumar
Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbook Series in Occupational Health Sciences book series (HDBSOHS, volume 1)


Over the few decades, we have seen significant changes in the global economy and, correspondingly, to the nature of work. The emergence of a number of middle-income countries (MICs), such as China and India, on to the global economic stage has drawn millions of workers into the global labor market. Yet the rapid economic growth of these MICs raises a number of questions about type and quality of employment that is being created in these countries and what this means for the health and well-being of those living and working there. The aim of this chapter is to explore the trends in work and employment in the rapidly developing MICs (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, and the Russian Federation). The data show we can see a number of common trends across the MICs. All have undergone some form of structural transformation which has seen employment in agriculture decline and employment in the service sector grow. However, this has not necessarily led to the growth of good quality jobs. Indeed, the data point to rising unemployment in some MICs and the persistence of a high rate of employment in the informal sector. Moreover, there are worrying signs that gender inequalities in labor market participation are widening in a number of MICs. There are concerns that these trends could lead to an increase in work-related disability and poor health across the developing countries.


Developing countries Labur market Structural transformation Informal work Vulnerable employment 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Innovative AgeingSwansea UniversitySwanseaUK
  2. 2.Centre for Study of Social Change and DevelopmentInstitute for Social and Economic ChangeBangloreIndia
  3. 3.Indian Institute of ManagementIndoreIndia

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