Advertisement

Pneumonia in the Cancer Patient

  • Ala Eddin S. Sagar
  • Scott E. EvansEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Pneumonia is a ubiquitous killer in all patient populations but presents a particular risk for morbidity and mortality among immunosuppressed cancer patients. The enhanced susceptibility of cancer patients to pneumonia arises from the aggregate effects of disease- and treatment-related immune dysfunction, disease- and treatment-related anatomic derangements, and healthcare-associated pathogen exposures, with the exact nature of an individual patient’s susceptibility being highly unique. Further, while prompt initiation of adequate antimicrobial therapy is essential to improved pneumonia outcomes, the initial diagnosis of pneumonia is often challenging in this population, as cancer patients with pneumonia frequently present with attenuated clinical signs and symptoms and very often have competing diagnoses that might explain new radiographic infiltrates, fever, or respiratory symptoms. This chapter addresses the mechanisms underlying pneumonia susceptibility in cancer patients, discusses the pathogens most often encountered, and provides an overview of pneumonia preventative, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies in this vulnerable patient group.

Keywords

Pneumonia Immunocompromised host Host-pathogen interactions Neutropenia Antibiotic resistance Bronchoscopy Hematologic malignancy Stem cell transplantation Orogastric aspiration CT chest Bacteria Viruses Fungi 

References

  1. 1.
    Ainoda Y, Hirai Y, Fujita T, Isoda N, Totsuka K. Analysis of clinical features of non-HIV Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. J Infect Chemother. 2012;18:722–8.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10156-012-0408-5. Epub 2012 Mar 30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Ansari S, Zecha JA, Barasch A, de Lange J, Rozema FR, Raber-Durlacher JE. Oral Mucositis induced by anticancer therapies. Curr Oral Health Rep. 2015;2:202–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40496-015-0069-4. Epub 2015 Oct 19.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alanio A, et al. ECIL guidelines for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016;71: 2386–96.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkw156. Epub 2016 May 12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anantasit N, Nuntacharruksa N, Incharoen P, Preutthipan A. Clinical and pathological correlation in pediatric invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis. Front Pediatr. 2018;6:31.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fped.2018.00031. eCollection 2018.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ashour HM, el-Sharif A. Microbial spectrum and antibiotic susceptibility profile of gram-positive aerobic bacteria isolated from cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:5763–9.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.14.0947.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azoulay E, et al. (1, 3)-beta-d-glucan assay for diagnosing invasive fungal infections in critically ill patients with hematological malignancies. Oncotarget. 2016;7:21484–95.  https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.7471.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bitar D, et al. Population-based analysis of invasive fungal infections, France, 2001–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1149–55.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.140087.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bonomi M, Batt K. Supportive management of mucositis and metabolic derangements in head and neck cancer patients. Cancers (Basel). 2015;7: 1743–57.  https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Casadevall A, Pirofski LA. Immunoglobulins in defense, pathogenesis, and therapy of fungal diseases. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:447–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2012.04.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chellapandian D, et al. Bronchoalveolar lavage and lung biopsy in patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33: 501–9.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2014.58.0480. Epub 2015 Jan 5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chemaly RF, et al. The characteristics and outcomes of parainfluenza virus infections in 200 patients with leukemia or recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood. 2012;119:2738–45; quiz 2969.  https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-08-371112. Epub 2012 Jan 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cherif H, Axdorph U, Kalin M, Bjorkholm M. Clinical experience of granulocyte transfusion in the management of neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies and severe infection. Scand J Infect Dis. 2013;45:112–6.  https://doi.org/10.3109/00365548.2012.714906.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chi AK, Soubani AO, White AC, Miller KB. An update on pulmonary complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Chest. 2013;144:1913–22.  https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.12-1708.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chu HY, et al. Nosocomial transmission of respiratory syncytial virus in an outpatient cancer center. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014;20:844–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.02.024. Epub 2014 Mar 6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Claus JA, Hodowanec AC, Singh K. Poor positive predictive value of influenza-like illness criteria in adult transplant patients: a case for multiplex respiratory virus PCR testing. Clin Transplant. 2015;29:938–43.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ctr.12600. Epub 2015 Sep 3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cleaver JO, et al. Lung epithelial cells are essential effectors of inducible resistance to pneumonia. Mucosal Immunol. 2014;7:78–88.  https://doi.org/10.1038/mi.2013.26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    De La Rosa GR, Jacobson KL, Rolston KV, Raad II, Kontoyiannis DP, Safdar A. Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a comprehensive cancer centre: active disease in patients with underlying malignancy during 1990–2000. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:749–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2004.00954.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    De Pauw B, et al. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1813–21.  https://doi.org/10.1086/588660.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Delia M, et al. Fusariosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia: a case report and review of the literature. Mycopathologia. 2016;181:457–63.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-016-9987-5. Epub 2016 Mar 23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ebbert JO, Limper AH. Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonitis in immunocompromised adults: clinical features and outcome. Respiration. 2005;72:263–9.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000085367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Evans SE, Ost DE. Pneumonia in the neutropenic cancer patient. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2015;21: 260–71.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000156.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ferguson PE, Sorrell TC, Bradstock K, Carr P, Gilroy NM. Parainfluenza virus type 3 pneumonia in bone marrow transplant recipients: multiple small nodules in high- resolution lung computed tomography scans provide a radiological clue to diagnosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:905–9.  https://doi.org/10.1086/597297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Flanders SA, Collard HR, Saint S. Nosocomial pneumonia: state of the science. Am J Infect Control. 2006;34:84–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2005.07.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Garcia-Cadenas I, et al. Patterns of infection and infection-related mortality in patients with steroid-refractory acute graft versus host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2017;52:107–13.  https://doi.org/10.1038/bmt.2016.225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Garcia-Vidal C, et al. Pneumococcal pneumonia presenting with septic shock: host- and pathogen-related factors and outcomes. Thorax. 2010;65:77–81.  https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.2009.123612.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gasparetto EL, Escuissato DL, Marchiori E, Ono S, Fraree Silva RL, Muller NL. High-resolution CT findings of respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia after bone marrow transplantation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004a;182:1133–7.  https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.182.5.1821133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gasparetto EL, Ono SE, Escuissato D, Marchiori E, Roldan L, Marques HL, Fraree Silva RL. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia after bone marrow transplantation: high resolution CT findings. Br J Radiol. 2004b;77: 724–7.  https://doi.org/10.1259/bjr/70800575.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    George B, et al. Pre-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus remains the most important determinant of CMV reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the era of surveillance and preemptive therapy. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010;12:322–9.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3062.2010.00504.x. Epub 2010 May 11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gilbert CR, Lerner A, Baram M, Awsare BK. Utility of flexible bronchoscopy in the evaluation of pulmonary infiltrates in the hematopoietic stem cell transplant population – a single center fourteen year experience. Arch Bronconeumol. 2013;49:189–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arbres.2012.11.012. Epub 2013 Feb 27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gonzalez C, Johnson T, Rolston K, Merriman K, Warneke C, Evans S. Predicting pneumonia mortality using CURB-65, PSI, and patient characteristics in patients presenting to the emergency department of a comprehensive cancer center. Cancer Med. 2014;3:962–70.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cam4.240.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Infectious Disease Society of America, American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2000;6:7–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Guzman-Bautista ER, Ramirez-Estudillo MC, Rojas-Gomez OI, Vega-Lopez MA. Tracheal and bronchial polymeric immunoglobulin secretory immune system (PISIS) development in a porcine model. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;53:271–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2015.07.010. Epub 2015 Jul 15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hardak E, Brook O, Yigla M. Radiological features of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in immunocompromised patients with and without AIDS. Lung. 2010;188:159–63.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00408-009-9214-y. Epub 2010 Jan 5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Heys SD, Gough DB, Khan L, Eremin O. Nutritional pharmacology and malignant disease: a therapeutic modality in patients with cancer. Br J Surg. 1996;83:608–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hohenthal U, et al. Bronchoalveolar lavage in immunocompromised patients with haematological malignancy–value of new microbiological methods. Eur J Haematol. 2005;74:203–11.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.2004.00373.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hummel M, Hofheinz R, Buchheidt D. Severe Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a patient with mild neutropenia during treatment of Hodgkin’s disease. Ann Hematol. 2004;83:441–3.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00277-003-0799-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ibrahim EH, Tracy L, Hill C, Fraser VJ, Kollef MH. The occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a community hospital: risk factors and clinical outcomes. Chest. 2001;120:555–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jiang L, Ren H, Zhou H, Qin T, Chen Y. Simultaneous detection of nine key bacterial respiratory pathogens using Luminex xTAG((R)) technology. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kalil AC, et al. Management of Adults with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated Pneumonia: 2016 clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63:e61–e111.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw353. Epub 2016 Jul 14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kauffman CA, et al. Endemic fungal infections in solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients enrolled in the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET). Transpl Infect Dis. 2014;16:213–24.  https://doi.org/10.1111/tid.12186.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Khayr W, Haddad RY, Noor SA. Infections in hematological malignancies. Dis Mon. 2012;58:239–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.disamonth.2012.01.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kojima R, et al. Chest computed tomography of late invasive aspergillosis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2005;11:506–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2005.03.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kontoyiannis DP. Antifungal prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: the unfinished tale of imperfect success. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011;46:165–73.  https://doi.org/10.1038/bmt.2010.256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kontoyiannis DP, et al. Zygomycosis in a tertiary-care cancer center in the era of Aspergillus-active antifungal therapy: a case-control observational study of 27 recent cases. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:1350–60.  https://doi.org/10.1086/428780. Epub 2005 Mar 16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kreiniz N, Bejar J, Polliack A, Tadmor T. Severe pneumonia associated with ibrutinib monotherapy for CLL and lymphoma. Hematol Oncol. 2018;36: 349–54.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hon.2387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Larche J, et al. Improved survival of critically ill cancer patients with septic shock. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:1688–95.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-003-1957-y. Epub 2003 Sep 12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lass-Florl C, Roilides E, Loffler J, Wilflingseder D, Romani L. Minireview: host defence in invasive aspergillosis. Mycoses. 2013;56:403–13.  https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12052. Epub 2013 Feb 14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lee HY, Choi JY, Lee HY, Rhee CK, Lee DG. Clinical utility of quantitative cytomegalovirus detection in bronchial washing fluid in patients with hematologic malignancies. Eur Respir J. 2015;46.  https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.congress-2015.PA572.
  49. 49.
    Li D, Rebecca P, Nurieva R, Molldrem JJ, Champlin RE, Ma Q. Ibrutinib treatment modulates T cell activation and polarization in immune response. Blood. 2015;126:3435.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Limper AH, et al. An official American Thoracic Society statement: treatment of fungal infections in adult pulmonary and critical care patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:96–128.  https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.2008-740ST.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ljungman P, et al. Risk factors for the development of cytomegalovirus disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Haematologica. 2006;91:78–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Maertens J, et al. Efficacy and safety of caspofungin for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of conventional antifungal therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:1563–71.  https://doi.org/10.1086/423381. Epub 2004 Nov 9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mandell LA, Bartlett JG, Dowell SF, File TM Jr, Musher DM, Whitney C, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Update of practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:1405–33.  https://doi.org/10.1086/380488.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Marr KA, Balajee SA, McLaughlin L, Tabouret M, Bentsen C, Walsh TJ. Detection of galactomannan antigenemia by enzyme immunoassay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis: variables that affect performance. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:641–9.  https://doi.org/10.1086/422009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marr KA, Carter RA, Crippa F, Wald A, Corey L. Epidemiology and outcome of mould infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:909–17.  https://doi.org/10.1086/339202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Martino R, et al. Prospective study of the incidence, clinical features, and outcome of symptomatic upper and lower respiratory tract infections by respiratory viruses in adult recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplants for hematologic malignancies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2005;11:781–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2005.07.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Martins F, de Oliveira MA, Wang Q, Sonis S, Gallottini M, George S, Treister N. A review of oral toxicity associated with mTOR inhibitor therapy in cancer patients. Oral Oncol. 2013;49:293–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2012.11.008. Epub 2013 Jan 9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    McKinnell JA, et al. Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized patients: a detailed examination of symptoms, management, and outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. Transpl Infect Dis. 2012;14:510–8.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3062.2012.00739.x. Epub 2012 May 1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mennink-Kersten MA, Ruegebrink D, Verweij PE. Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a cause of 1,3-beta-d-glucan assay reactivity. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46: 1930–1.  https://doi.org/10.1086/588563.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Molinos L, et al. Sensitivity, specificity, and positivity predictors of the pneumococcal urinary antigen test in community-acquired Pneumonia. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015;12:1482–9.  https://doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201505-304OC.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Moller T, et al. Early warning and prevention of pneumonia in acute leukemia by patient education, spirometry, and positive expiratory pressure: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Hematol. 2016;91:271–6.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24262.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Monneret G, Venet F, Pachot A, Lepape A. Monitoring immune dysfunctions in the septic patient: a new skin for the old ceremony. Mol Med. 2008;14:64–78.  https://doi.org/10.2119/2007-00102.Monneret.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Murali S, Langston AA, Nolte FS, Banks G, Martin R, Caliendo AM. Detection of respiratory viruses with a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay (MultiCode-PLx Respiratory Virus Panel) in patients with hematologic malignancies. Leuk Lymphoma. 2009;50:619–24.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10428190902777665.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Nakamae H, et al. Effect of conditioning regimen intensity on CMV infection in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2009;15:694–703.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.02.009.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nambu A, Ozawa K, Kobayashi N, Tago M. Imaging of community-acquired pneumonia: roles of imaging examinations, imaging diagnosis of specific pathogens and discrimination from noninfectious diseases. World J Radiol. 2014;6:779–93.  https://doi.org/10.4329/wjr.v6.i10.779.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Neofytos D, et al. Correlation between circulating fungal biomarkers and clinical outcome in invasive aspergillosis. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0129022.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129022. eCollection 2015.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Oikonomou A, Muller NL, Nantel S. Radiographic and high-resolution CT findings of influenza virus pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003;181:507–11.  https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.181.2.1810507.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pagano L, et al. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with malignant haematological diseases: 10 years’ experience of infection in GIMEMA centres. Br J Haematol. 2002;117:379–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Paradis IL, Grgurich WF, Dummer JS, Dekker A, Dauber JH. Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus pneumonia from lung lavage cells. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988;138:697–702.  https://doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm/138.3.697.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Quint LE. Thoracic complications and emergencies in oncologic patients. Cancer Imaging. 2009;9 Spec No A:S75–82.  https://doi.org/10.1102/1470-7330.2009.9031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Reischies FM, Prattes J, Woelfler A, Eigl S, Hoenigl M. Diagnostic performance of 1,3-beta-d-glucan serum screening in patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2016;18:466–70.  https://doi.org/10.1111/tid.12527. Epub 2016 May 10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rello J, Ollendorf DA, Oster G, Vera-Llonch M, Bellm L, Redman R, Kollef MH. Epidemiology and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a large US database. Chest. 2002;122:2115–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Roblot F, et al. Risk factors analysis for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) in patients with haematological malignancies and pneumonia. Scand J Infect Dis. 2004;36:848–54.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00365540410021180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rosolem MM, et al. Critically ill patients with cancer and sepsis: clinical course and prognostic factors. J Crit Care. 2012;27:301–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2011.06.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sachanas S, et al. Malakoplakia of the urinary bladder in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia under Ibrutinib therapy: a case report. Anticancer Res. 2016;36:4759–62.  https://doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.11032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Safdar A, Armstrong D. Infectious morbidity in critically ill patients with cancer. Crit Care Clin. 2001;17:531–70, vii–viii.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Safdar A, Rolston KV. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: changing spectrum of a serious bacterial pathogen in patients with cancer. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:1602–9.  https://doi.org/10.1086/522998.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Safdar A, Singhal S, Mehta J. Clinical significance of non-Candida fungal blood isolation in patients undergoing high-risk allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (1993–2001). Cancer. 2004;100: 2456–61.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.20262.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schiffer JT, Kirby K, Sandmaier B, Storb R, Corey L, Boeckh M. Timing and severity of community acquired respiratory virus infections after myeloablative versus non-myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Haematologica. 2009;94: 1101–8.  https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2008.003186.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Schnetzke U, et al. Polymorphisms of toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) are associated with the risk of infectious complications in acute myeloid leukemia. Genes Immun. 2015;16:83–8.  https://doi.org/10.1038/gene.2014.67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Seo S, Xie H, Campbell AP, Kuypers JM, Leisenring WM, Englund JA, Boeckh M. Parainfluenza virus lower respiratory tract disease after hematopoietic cell transplant: viral detection in the lung predicts outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58: 1357–68.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu134. Epub 2014 Mar 5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Smith JA, Kauffman CA. Pulmonary fungal infections. Respirology. 2012;17:913–26.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1843.2012.02150.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Souza JP, Boeckh M, Gooley TA, Flowers ME, Crawford SW. High rates of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant recipients receiving dapsone prophylaxis. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:1467–71.  https://doi.org/10.1086/313509.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Spolarics Z, Siddiqi M, Siegel JH, Garcia ZC, Stein DS, Denny T, Deitch EA. Depressed interleukin-12-producing activity by monocytes correlates with adverse clinical course and a shift toward Th2-type lymphocyte pattern in severely injured male trauma patients. Crit Care Med. 2003;31: 1722–9.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ccm.0000063579.43470.aa.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Stanzani M, et al. High resolution computed tomography angiography improves the radiographic diagnosis of invasive mold disease in patients with hematological malignancies. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60:1603–10.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ154. Epub 2015 Feb 25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Svensson T, Lundstrom KL, Hoglund M, Cherif H. Utility of bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosing respiratory tract infections in patients with hematological malignancies: are invasive diagnostics still needed? Ups J Med Sci. 2017;122:56–60.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03009734.2016.1237595.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Syrjala H, Broas M, Suramo I, Ojala A, Lahde S. High-resolution computed tomography for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27:358–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Taccone FS, Artigas AA, Sprung CL, Moreno R, Sakr Y, Vincent JL. Characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients in European ICUs. Crit Care. 2009;13:R15.  https://doi.org/10.1186/cc7713. Epub 2009 Feb 6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tacke D, Koehler P, Markiefka B, Cornely OA. Our 2014 approach to mucormycosis. Mycoses. 2014;57:519–24.  https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12203. Epub 2014 May 15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Toleman MS, Herbert K, McCarthy N, Church DN. Vaccination of chemotherapy patients–effect of guideline implementation. Support Care Cancer. 2016;24:2317–21.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-015-3037-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Torres HA, et al. Nocardiosis in cancer patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2002;81:388–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tortorano AM, Esposto MC, Prigitano A, Grancini A, Ossi C, Cavanna C, Cascio GL. Cross-reactivity of Fusarium spp. in the Aspergillus Galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1051–3.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.05946-11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Travi G, Pergam SA. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in hematopoietic stem cell recipients. J Intensive Care Med. 2014;29:200–12.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0885066613476454.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tschernig T. Hospital-acquired pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia: two guys? Ann Transl Med. 2016;4:S22.  https://doi.org/10.21037/atm.2016.10.10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vallipuram J, et al. Chest CT scans are frequently abnormal in asymptomatic patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2017;58:834–41.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2016.1213825.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Venet F, Chung CS, Monneret G, Huang X, Horner B, Garber M, Ayala A. Regulatory T cell populations in sepsis and trauma. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:523–35.  https://doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0607371.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Vento S, Cainelli F, Temesgen Z. Lung infections after cancer chemotherapy. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9:982–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70255-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vilar-Compte D, Shah DP, Vanichanan J, Cornejo-Juarez P, Garcia-Horton A, Volkow P, Chemaly RF. Influenza in patients with hematological malignancies: experience at two comprehensive cancer centers. J Med Virol. 2018;90:50–60.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24930.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Waghmare A, Pergam SA, Jerome KR, Englund JA, Boeckh M, Kuypers J. Clinical disease due to enterovirus D68 in adult hematologic malignancy patients and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Blood. 2015;125:1724–9.  https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-12-616516. Epub 2015 Jan 15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Waheed Z, Irfan M, Fatimi S, Shahid R. Bronchial carcinoid presenting as multiple lung abscesses. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2013;23:229–30. 03.2013/JCPSP.229230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    West KA, Gea-Banacloche J, Stroncek D, Kadri SS. Granulocyte transfusions in the management of invasive fungal infections. Br J Haematol. 2017;177: 357–74.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14597. Epub 2017 Mar 14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wheat LJ, Walsh TJ. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis by galactomannan antigenemia detection using an enzyme immunoassay. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;27:245–51.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-007-0437-7. Epub 2008 Jan 9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Whimbey E, Goodrich J, Bodey GP. Pneumonia in cancer patients. Cancer Treat Res. 1995;79:185–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Whitsett JA, Alenghat T. Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity. Nat Immunol. 2015;16:27–35.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.3045.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wu GX, et al. Survival following lung resection in immunocompromised patients with pulmonary invasive fungal infection. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016;49:314–20.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezv026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Yamamoto K, et al. Roles of lung epithelium in neutrophil recruitment during pneumococcal pneumonia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014;50:253–62.  https://doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2013-0114OC.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Young AY, Leiva Juarez MM, Evans SE. Fungal pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Chest Med. 2017;38:479–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccm.2017.04.009. Epub 2017 May 31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Division of Internal MedicineUniversity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Yenny Cardenas
    • 1
  1. 1.Critical Care DepartmentUniversidad del Rosario Hospital Universitario Fundacion Santa Fe deBogotaColombia

Personalised recommendations