Electrolytic Abnormalities Related to Sodium in Critically Ill Cancer Patients
Sodium homeostasis and water balance are vital for a critically ill patient with cancer. Hypernatremia and hyponatremia are metabolic emergencies in the oncologic ICU associated with higher mortality rates and prolonged length of stay. Patients with cancer are susceptible to have variations in plasma osmolality leading to those conditions. Drugs, tumor-related injuries, metastasis, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and other pathological conditions predispose to the dysregulation of that narrow balance. Intensivists and oncologist must assess the volume status and the plasma and urine osmolality carefully to avoid life-threatening conditions leading to neurological compromise and even death. Hypernatremia and hyponatremia are commonly found in the ICU wards, so the therapeutic workup should include special attention to these electrolytic disturbances.
KeywordsHypernatremia Hyponatremia Intensive critical care Oncologic emergency Renal insufficiency SIADH Sodium homeostasis
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