Cleft and Craniofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Oral clefts represent one of the most common birth defects in the world, with global incidence of about 1:700 and multifactorial etiology. No reliable epidemiological data is present on oral clefts in the Middle East but variable obstacles to proper care are well documented and studied. With the epidemic of conflict in the region, new obstacles and an increase in risk factors associated with oral clefts are challenging care providers. New models must be put in place to spread the awareness and care needed for cleft care to prevent long-term disability in children with oral clefts. This chapter sheds light on some of the challenges facing cleft and craniofacial care in the Middle East.
KeywordsCleft lip Cleft palate Arab world Middle East Oral clefts Craniofacial deformities
- Aldhorae KA, Böhmer AC, Ludwig KU, Esmail AHA, Al-Hebshi NN, Lippke B, Gölz L, Nöthen MM, Daratsianos N, Knapp M (2014) Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Arab populations: genetic analysis of 15 risk loci in a novel case–control sample recruited in Yemen. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 100:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fouad FM, Sparrow A, Tarakji A, Alameddine M, El-Jardali F, Coutts AP, El Arnaout N, Karroum LB, Jawad M, Roborgh S (2017) Health workers and the weaponisation of health care in Syria: a preliminary inquiry for The Lancet–American University of Beirut Commission on Syria. Lancet 390:P2516–2526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hughes CD, Babigian A, McCormack S, Alkire BC, Wong A, Pap SA, Vincent JR, Meara JG, Castiglione C, Silverman R (2012) The clinical and economic impact of a sustained program in global plastic surgery: valuing cleft care in resource-poor settings. Plast Reconstr Surg 130:87e–94eCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Standards for cleft palate and craniofacial teams (2019) http://www.acpa-cpf.org/team_care/standards/. Accessed 31 Mar
- Syria two years on: the failure of international aid (2013) http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/news-stories/special-report/syria-two-years-failure-international-aid