The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies

Living Edition
| Editors: Scott Romaniuk, Manish Thapa, Péter Marton

Critical Infrastructure

  • Murat BayarEmail author
Living reference work entry


States cooperate on a large number of issues ranging from trade and poverty alleviation to economic security. While the dominant theories in international relations highlight interstate militarized disputes and nuclear proliferation as the primary threats against international security, global terrorism and climate change have increasingly posed new types of threats in the twenty-first century. Critical infrastructures, such as ports, subways, and nuclear plants, which are essential for the well-being and livelihoods of societies, are affected by both of these issues. Accordingly, there is a growing international effort (e.g., the European Union’s conceptualization of European critical infrastructures) to address the role of critical infrastructures in sustaining physical and economic security, the human-caused and natural threats against them, and the mechanisms through which states can adapt to, if not mitigate, these new threats.

In general, infrastructure refers to...


Cyber Terrorism Sea level rise Climate change 
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Further Reading

  1. French, G. S. (2007). Intelligence analysis for strategic risk assessments. In Critical infrastructure protection: Elements of risk (pp. 12–24). Fairfax, VA: George Mason University, School of Law.
  2. O’Rourke, T. D. (2007). Critical infrastructure, interdependencies, and resilience. The Bridge, 37(1), 22–29.Google Scholar
  3. Weichselgartner, J. (2001). Disaster mitigation: The concept of vulnerability revisited. Disaster Prevention and Management, 10(2), 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political Science and Public AdministrationSocial Sciences University of AnkaraAnkaraTurkey