States cooperate on a large number of issues ranging from trade and poverty alleviation to economic security. While the dominant theories in international relations highlight interstate militarized disputes and nuclear proliferation as the primary threats against international security, global terrorism and climate change have increasingly posed new types of threats in the twenty-first century. Critical infrastructures, such as ports, subways, and nuclear plants, which are essential for the well-being and livelihoods of societies, are affected by both of these issues. Accordingly, there is a growing international effort (e.g., the European Union’s conceptualization of European critical infrastructures) to address the role of critical infrastructures in sustaining physical and economic security, the human-caused and natural threats against them, and the mechanisms through which states can adapt to, if not mitigate, these new threats.
In general, infrastructure refers to...
KeywordsCyber Terrorism Sea level rise Climate change
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