The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Global Security Studies

Living Edition
| Editors: Scott Romaniuk, Manish Thapa, Péter Marton

Smuggling

  • William PattersonEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74336-3_130-1

Definition

Smuggling is the illicit transport of materials or persons across legally constituted borders or boundaries. A wide variety of goods are or can be smuggled, from tobacco products to nuclear material to human beings. The motives for smuggling are equally diverse. Some people smuggle to avoid taxation, this is especially the case with tobacco and alcohol, while others smuggle because the item itself is illegal, as with drugs or nuclear material. States may engage in smuggling in order to avoid internationally applied sanctions or to obfuscate clandestine activities, such as the development of weapons programs. Human smugglers typically seek to benefit financially either by profiting from the facilitation of illegal migration or through the exploitation of the people within their power as either sex workers or underpaid laborers.

Introduction

Smuggling adversely impacts both human security and state security in a variety of ways, depending upon the particular form under...

Keywords

Smuggling Trafficking Drugs Nuclear material Human trafficking Sanctions Violations 
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References

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Further Reading

  1. Andreas, P. (2005). Criminalizing consequences of sanctions: Embargo busting and its legacy. International Studies Quarterly, 49, 335–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhagwati, J., & Hansen, B. (1973). A theoretical analysis of smuggling. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87(2), 172–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buxton, J. (2006). The political economy of narcotics: Production, consumption and global markets. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
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  5. Chestnut, S. (2007). Illicit activity and proliferation. International Security, 32(1), 80–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frantz, D., & Collins, C. (2007). The nuclear jihadist: The true story of the man who sold the world’s most dangerous secrets – And how we could have stopped him. New York: Twelve.Google Scholar
  7. Leiken, R. S., & Brooke, S. (2006). The quantitative analysis of terrorism and immigration: An initial exploration. Terrorism and Political Violence, 18(4), 503–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Thachuk, K. (Ed.). (2007). Transnational threats: Smuggling and trafficking in arms, drugs, and human life. Westport: Praeger Security International.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US Department of StateWashingtonUSA