Political Inequality, Secular Democracy, Religion, Gender, and the “ISMS”

  • Farideh SaliliEmail author
Living reference work entry


In this chapter we discuss secular democracy and how it could be used in subversive ways to promote political agenda. Implicit in definitions of democracy is human rights and social justice. A brief account of theories of social justice is provided as the backdrop to our discussions of political inequality and other issues. Topics covered include political inequality and its relationship with economic and education inequality. Religious intolerance and role of educational institutions in teaching religious tolerance in schools and universities are discussed. We also provide an account of racial and gender inequalities and the progress made in these areas. Finally, the challenge of increasing diversity for educational institutions and ways of promoting social justice in education are discussed.


Secular democracy Social justice Utilitaranism Political inequality Religious and racial intolerance Gender inequality Transformative education 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departmtent of PsychologyThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  2. 2.Order of Quebec PsychologyMontrealCanada
  3. 3.APAWashington, D.C.USA
  4. 4.AERAWashington, D.C.USA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Khalid Arar
    • 1
  • Kadir Beycioglu
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of EducationAl-Qasemi Academic College of EducationBaqa ElgarbiaIsrael
  2. 2.Faculty of Education at Buca, Department of Division of Educational AdministrationDokuz Eylul UniversityIzmirTurkey

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