Advertisement

Social Inclusion in Education in the Commonwealth Caribbean

  • Zellynne JenningsEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The Commonwealth Caribbean comprises mostly small island states which have a common history of colonial dependency as slave plantation economies in the British Empire. While they all are signatories to “Education for All” and are committed to inclusion and goals of equality of opportunity, equity and the improvement of quality, traditional attitudes that encourage exclusion of certain students in the education system persist as hangovers from the colonial experience. The theoretical premise adopted in this chapter is an interpretation of inclusion as a process which necessitates the presence, participation and achievement of all students. It is also argued that inclusion intersects with other concepts such as access, equity, quality and social justice. Drawing on a variety of sources including Ministry of Education documents, doctoral theses and published research, this chapter examines five interventions introduced into Commonwealth Caribbean (CC) education systems to address such exclusionary practices as the marginalization of students on the basis of social class, gender, and their geographical location. These interventions are the Grade 10–11 program and the Reform of Secondary Education (Jamaica); Edutech 2000 (Barbados); The Hinterland Teacher Training program (Guyana); and the Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (15 CC countries). Challenges to the achievement of social inclusion are discussed. These include conflicts of interest between the users of the intervention and the developers, socially differentiated curricula which results in poorer quality curricula being offered to the lower social class and a lack of understanding of inclusion by key actors. Amongst these are teachers whose attitudes and treatment of students in their classrooms results in their marginalization and exclusion from studying certain subjects. The chapter ends by highlighting some drivers for social inclusion, such as the desire for upward social mobility through education and inhibitors such as limited financial resources which necessitate a dependency on external aid. Another inhibitor is decision-making which is uninformed by research data. Given that the achievement of expected outcomes of some of the interventions was negatively impacted by a reliance on speed and hasty transactions the author emphasizes the importance of adequate time being given to interventions in education and particularly to those with the goal of inclusion, given that the latter is a process and takes time.

Keywords

Caribbean Inclusion Interventions Education Equity Gender Cultural relevance Quality learning 

References

  1. Abbott, M. E. (1980). Education for Development: A case study of curriculum change, Jamaica, West Indies. Unpublished Ed. D thesis, Columbia University Teachers College. New York.Google Scholar
  2. Ainscow, M., & Miles, S. (2009). Developing inclusive education systems: How can we move policies forward? In Chapter prepared for a book in Spanish to be edited by Climent Gine et al. Retrieved January 2019 www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/COPs/News_documents/2009/0907Beirut/DevelopingInclusive_Education_Systems.pdf.
  3. Anderson, S. (2011). Access and equity in higher education: The experiences of four students with disabilities. In A. Ezenne (Ed.), Higher education in the Caribbean: Research, challenges and prospects (pp. 365–396). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong, A. C., Armstrong, D., Carlyle, L., & Sonia, S. (2005). Special and inclusive education in the Eastern Caribbean: Policy and practice. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 9(1), 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bacchus, K. (2005). Education for economic, social and political development in the British Caribbean colonies from 1896 to 1945. London, ON: The Althouse Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bacchus, K., & Brock, C. (1987). The challenge of scale: Educational development in the small states of the Commonwealth. London, England: Commonwealth Secretariat.Google Scholar
  7. Bacchus, M. (1994). Education as and for legitimacy: Developments in west Indian education between 1846 and 1895. Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bailey, B. (2000). Issues of gender and education in Jamaica: What about the boys? Kingston, Jamaica: Office of the UNESCO representative in the Caribbean.Google Scholar
  9. Bailey, B. (2003). The search for gender equity and empowerment of Caribbean women. In G. T. Nain & B. Bailey (Eds.), Gender equity in the Caribbean: Reality or illusion (pp. 108–145). Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Barton, L. (Ed.). (1987). The politics of special educational needs. Lewes, UK: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bray, M. (1998). Regional examinations councils and geopolitical change: Commonality, diversity, and lessons from experience. International Journal of Educational Development, 18(6), 473–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC). (1996). Caribbean examinations council: Annual report. St. Michael, Barbados: Caribbean Examinations Council.Google Scholar
  13. CARICOM Secretariat (2000). Gender Issues in Caribbean Education :A Module for Teacher Education. CARICOM Secretariat, Georgetown, Guyana, in association with The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.Google Scholar
  14. CARICOM. (2005). A harmonized policy framework for teacher education in the Caribbean. Georgetown, Guyana: The Caribbean Community Secretariat.Google Scholar
  15. Connell, R. (1996). Teaching the boys: New research on masculinity and gender strategies for schools. Teachers College Record, 8(2), 206–235.Google Scholar
  16. Cook, L. & Ezenne, A. (2010). Factors influencing students’ absenteeism in primary schools in Jamaica: Perspectives of community members. Caribbean Curriculum 17, 33–57.Google Scholar
  17. Craig, D. (1998). The Commonwealth Caribbean: Performance of countries in the Caribbean Examinations Council Secondary Education Certificate Examinations. Journal of Education and Development in the Caribbean, 2(1), 49–64.Google Scholar
  18. Crossley, M., Bray, M., & Packer, S. (2009). Education in the small states of the commonwealth: Towards and beyond global goals and targets. The Round Table: Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, 98, 731–751.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00358530903371429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis, R. (1994, November). ROSE: A brief history. ROSEGRAM, 1–10.Google Scholar
  20. De Lisle, J. (2016). Evolving data use policy in Trinidad and Tobago: the search for actionable knowledge on educational improvement in a small island developing state. Educational Assessment Evaluation and Accountability 28(2), 35–60Google Scholar
  21. Dei, G. (2000). Rethinking the role of indigenous knowledges in the academy. Journal of Inclusive Education, 4(2), 111–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Edwards-Kerr, D., & Spencer-Ernandez, J. (2017). Inclusive education. In Z. Jennings & D. Edwards-Kerr (Eds.), Re-imagining education in the Commonwealth Caribbean (pp. 57–76). Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers.Google Scholar
  23. Evans, H. (1997). Transforming policy into action: Facilitating teacher change in a Jamaican innovation. Journal of Education and Development in the Caribbean, 1(1), 1–20.Google Scholar
  24. Figueroa, J. (1971). Society, schools and progress in the West Indies. New York, NY: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  25. Forte, J., & Melville, I. (1989). Amerindian testimonies. Georgetown, Guyana: Janette Forte.Google Scholar
  26. Government of Barbados. (1993). 1993–2000 Development Plan. Bridgetown, Barbados: Ministry of Economic Affairs.Google Scholar
  27. Government of Guyana. (2002). Eduction for all-fast track initiative country proposal. Georgetown, Guyana: Government of Guyana.Google Scholar
  28. Government of Guyana. (2003). Ministry of education strategic plan 2003–2007. Georgetown, Guyana: Government of Guyana.Google Scholar
  29. Griffith, S. (2015). School-based assessment in a Caribbean Public Examination. Kingston, Jamaica: The University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
  30. Hanushek, E., Ruhose, J., & Woessmann, L. (2016). It pays to improve school quality. Education Next, 16(3), 16–24.Google Scholar
  31. Heyneman, S. P., & Jamison, D. T. (1984). Textbooks in the Philippines: Evaluation of the pedagogical impact of a nationwide investment. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 6(2), 139–150.Google Scholar
  32. Hickling-Hudson, A. (1998). When Marxist and postmodern theories won’t do: The potential of postcolonial theory for educational analysis. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 19(3), 327–339.Google Scholar
  33. Hickling-Hudson, A. (2002). Re-visioning from the inside: getting under the skin of the World Bank’s Education Sector Strategy. International Journal of Educational Development 22, 565–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jelas, Z. M., & Modh Ali, M. (2013). Inclusive education in Malaysia: Policy and practice. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(10), 991–1003.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2012.693398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jennings, Z. (1993). The non-institutionalization of the use of self-instructional materials in primary schools in Jamaica: the case of Project PRIMER. Journal of Curriculum Studies 25(6): 527–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jennings, Z. (1994). Innovations in Caribbean School Systems: why some have become institutionalized and others have not. Curriculum Studies 2(3), 309–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jennings, Z. (1996). Evaluation of the Hinterland teacher training programme (June 1994–June 1995). Georgetown, Guyana: Education and Development Services.Google Scholar
  38. Jennings, Z. (1998). Stakeholders’ perceptions of the attributes of the Resource and Technology curriculum in Jamaican secondary schools. Education and Development Services Inc. Guyana.Google Scholar
  39. Jennings, Z. (1999). Educational reform in Guyana in the post-war period. In E. Miller (Ed.), Educational reform in the Commonwealth Caribbean (CIDI Interamer 54 educational series, pp. 149–198). Washington, DC: OAS.Google Scholar
  40. Jennings, Z. (2001). Teacher education in selected countries in the Commonwealth Caribbean: The ideal of policy versus the reality of practice. Comparative Education, 37(1), 107–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jennings, Z. (2002). Perspective on curriculum change in the Caribbean. Journal of Education and Development in the Caribbean 6(1&2), 105–135.Google Scholar
  42. Jennings, Z. (2011). From the Pomeroon to Portland: Relevance and responsiveness to teacher training needs in contrasting contexts in the Commonwealth Caribbean. In A. Ezenne (Ed.), Higher education in the Caribbean: Research, challenges and prospects (pp. 292–334). Charlotte, NC: Informaton Age Publishling.Google Scholar
  43. Jennings, Z. (2012). Resource and technology: A beacon for change in the reform of Jamaica’s secondary education system – Or a “pipedream”? International Review of Education, 58(2), 247–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jennings, Z. (2017). Interventions in schools’ curricula to achieve quality in learning: Experiences from the Commonwealth Caribbean. Compare: A journal of International and Comparative Education, 47, 818.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2017.1331120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jennings-Wray, Z. & Wellington, P. J. (1985). Educational Technology utilisation in Jamaica’s secondary school system: present problems and future prospects. In: British Journal of Educational Technology 16(3), 169–183.Google Scholar
  46. Jennings, Z., Edwards-Kerr, D., Joong, P., Buddoo, C., Lambert, C., Stewart, M., … Lingo, D. (2012). Evaluation of the National curriculum strategies. Kingston, Jamaica: UWI Consulting.Google Scholar
  47. Jennings-Wray, Z. (1984). Teacher involvement in curriculum change in Jamaica: Advocacy and reality. Compare : A Journal of Comparative Education, 14(1), 41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson, B. (2010, April 27). Education system gets grade F. But some schools improve quality of performance in CXC. Education 2020, 3–7.Google Scholar
  49. Jules, V., & Kutnick, P. (1990). Determinants of academic success within classrooms in Trinidad and Tobago: Some personal and systemic variables. Educational Studies, 16, 217–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kutnick, P. (2000). Girls, boys and school achievement. Critical comments on who achieves in schools and under what economic and social conditions achievement takes place – A Caribbean perspective. International Journal of Educational Development, 20, 65–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lalvani, P. (2013). Privilege, compromise, or social justice: Conceptualizations of inclusive education. Disability and Society, 28(1), 14–27.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2012.692028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Layne, A. (1991). A review of research on access to education and educational achievement in Barbados. In E. Miller (Ed.), Education and Society in the Commonwealth Caribbean (pp. 75–101). Kingston, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, UWI, Mona.Google Scholar
  53. London, N. (1993). Why education projects in developing countries fail: A case study. International Journal of Educational Development, 13(3), 265–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. London, N. A. (2002). Curriculum convergence: An ethno-historical investigation into schooling in Trinidad and Tobago. Comparative Education, 38(1), 53–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Manley, M. (1974). The politics of change: A Jamaican testament. London, England: Andre Deutsch.Google Scholar
  56. Marshall, P. (2006/2007). Teaching strategies used by teacher educators and their influence on beginning teachers’ practices. Journal of Education and Development in the Caribbean, 9(1 & 2), 70–96.Google Scholar
  57. McEwan, P. (1998). The effectiveness of multigrade schools in Colombia. International Journal of Educational Development, 18(6), 4325–4452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miller, E. (1986). Marginalization of the black male: Insights from the development of the teaching profession. Kingston, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research.Google Scholar
  59. Miller, E. (1991). Education and Society in the Caribbean: Some Reflections. In: E. Miller (ed) Education and Society in the Commonwealth Caribbean (pp 207–234): Kingston, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic ResearchGoogle Scholar
  60. Miller, E. (1999a). Commonwealth Caribbean education in the global context. In E. Miller (Ed.), Educational reform in the Commonwealth Caribbean (Interamer 54: Educational series, pp. 3–24). Washington, DC: Organization of the American States.Google Scholar
  61. Miller, E. (1999b). Educational reform in Jamaica. In E. Miller (Ed.), Educational reform in the Commonwealth Caribbean (Interamer 54: Educational series, pp. 199–253). Washington, DC: Organization of the American States.Google Scholar
  62. Ministry of Education, Guyana. (1990). State paper on education policy: Developing education for economic recovery. Georgetown, Guyana: Ministry of Education, Guyana.Google Scholar
  63. Ministry of Education, J. (1977). The Jamaica five-year development plan. Kingston, Jamaica: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  64. Ministry of Education, Youth Affairs and Culture, Barbados. (1998). Education and technology in Barbados: The challenge for the twenty-first century. Journal of Education and Development in the Caribbean, 2(2), 135–144.Google Scholar
  65. Mittler, P. (2000). Working towards inclusive education. London, England: Fulton.Google Scholar
  66. Peters, S. J. (2004). Inclusive education : An EFA strategy for all children. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  67. Pirog, M. A., & Kioko, S. N. (2010). Evaluation of the education sector enhancement programme in Barbados. International Public Management Journal, 13(1), 72–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rainford, M. (1998). Challenges of the ROSE curriculum: Narrowing the gaps among secondary schools in Jamaica. Journal of Education and Development in the Caribbean, 2(2), 77–92.Google Scholar
  69. Raymond, D. (2006). The perceptions of principals, teachers and students about the impact of the Reform of Secondary Education on access, quality and equity in secondary education in Jamaica. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.Google Scholar
  70. Riddell, A. & Nino-Zarazúa, M. (2015). The effectiveness of foreign aid to education: What can be learned? International Journal of Educational Development 30, 1–15.Google Scholar
  71. Sachs, J., Schmidt-Traub, G., Kroll, C., Durand-Delacre, D., & Teksoz, K. (2017). SDG index and dashboards report 2017: Global responsibilities: International spillovers in achieving the goals. New York, NY: Bertelsmann Stiftung and Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN).Google Scholar
  72. Shotte, G. (2014). Education in Montserrat: Some pre- and post-1995 reflections. In E. Thomas (Ed.), Education in the Commonwealth Caribbean and Netherland Antilles (pp. 265–286). London, England: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  73. Slee, R., & Allan, J. (2001). Excluding the included: A reconsideration of inclusive education. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 11(2), 173–192.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09620210100200073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Spencer-Ernandez, J. (2011). Transitioning from GSAT to CSEC: A longitudinal study of the impact of literacy development of students in Jamaican primary school on their performance in CSEC English A. Journal of Education and Development in the Caribbean, 13(1 & 2), 133–161.Google Scholar
  75. Thomas, E. (2014). Introduction and regional overview: Priorities and prospects for education in the Caribbean. In E. Thomas (Ed.), Education in the Commonwealth Caribbean and Netherland Antilles (pp. 1–10). London, England: Bloomsbury.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tikly, L. (2011). Towards a framework for researching the quality of education in low-income countries. Comparative Education, 47(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). (2010). The real wealth of nations: Pathways to human development. New York, NY: UNDP Human Development Report Office.Google Scholar
  78. UNESCO. (1983). Jamaica: Development of secondary education. Paris, France: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  79. UNESCO. (1994). The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education. Paris, France: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  80. UNESCO. (2004). Education for All: The quality imperative: EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005. UNESCO: Paris.Google Scholar
  81. UNESCO. (2012). EFA global monitoring report: Youth and skills: Putting education to work. Paris, France: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  82. UNESCO. (2015). Rethinking education: Towards a global common good? Paris, France: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  83. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2013). Human development report: The rise of the south: Human progress in a diverse world. New York, NY: UNDP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Welch, P. (2014). Barbados: Modelling the educational system- a socioeconomic and historical investigation. In E. Thomas (Ed.), Education in the Commonwealth Caribbean and the Netherland Antilles (pp. 63–85). London, England: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  85. World Bank. (2013). Inclusion matters: The foundation for shared prosperity. Washington, DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wynter, R. (2009, March 31). Jamaica’s grades trending up, but still not good enough. Education, 2020, 9–10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationThe University of the West IndiesKingstonJamaica

Section editors and affiliations

  • David John Matheson
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Health, Education and Well-beingUniversity of WolverhamptonWalsallUK

Personalised recommendations