Literacies of Interrogation and Vulnerability: Reimagining Preservice Teacher Preparation Designed to Promote Social Justice in Education

  • Marcus CroomEmail author
  • Tracey T. Flores
  • George Kamberelis
Living reference work entry


To contribute to promoting social justice in education, the concept of literacy itself must be radically reimagined. This reimagining involves moving beyond thinking about literacy as primarily an engagement with print (or even print and visuals), beyond thinking about multiple literacies or new literacies, and even beyond understanding literacies as social and cultural practices. Instead, we must come to grips with the living fact that literacy and literacies embody historical, cultural, social, economic, and political ideologies that, as Marx taught us, operate “behind our backs” and hold systems and practices of privilege/oppression in place. To begin to make these ideologies visible and to de/reconstruct these systems and practices, literacy scholars and teachers must develop literacies of interrogation and literacies of vulnerability. Literacies of interrogation involve trying to understand the conditions of possibility that incline us to believe what we believe, think what we think, and do what we do, and then to de/reconstruct those conditions of possibility to show that they are effects of particular historical-social-cultural forces and not universal, unchangeable facts. Literacies of vulnerability involve building relationships with students and their families based on reciprocity, respect, and mutual trust with the goal of making social, cultural, and economic capital more accessible to all. Both of these reimagined literacies involve both a de/reconstructive impulse and an ethic of care; literacies of interrogation underscore the former; literacies of vulnerability emphasize the latter. In the end, becoming conversant with both kinds of literacies is necessary if future literacy teachers are to become allies in promoting social justice in classrooms, schools, communities, and the world.


Social justice Literacy Literacies Family Community Care Family and community literacies Race Racial literacies 


  1. Allen, J. (2007). Creating welcoming schools: A practical guide to home-school partnerships with diverse families. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez, S. P. (2017). Community literacies en confianza: Learning from bilingual after-school programs. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.Google Scholar
  3. Annamma, S. A., Jackson, D. D., & Morrison, D. (2017). Conceptualizing color-evasiveness: Using dis/ability critical race theory to expand a color-blind racial ideology in education and society. Race Ethnicity and Education, 20(2), 147–162. Scholar
  4. Appadurai, A. (1996). Diversity and disciplinarity as cultural artifacts. In C. Nelson & D. P. Ganokar (Eds.), Cultural studies and the politics of disciplinarity (pp. 23–36). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Apple, M. (2001). Markets, standards, teaching, and teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(3), 182–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arias, B. M., & Morillo-Campbell, M. (2008). Promoting ELL parental involvement: Challenges in contested times. Retrieved from
  7. Auerbach, E. (1995). Deconstructing the discourse of strengths in family literacy. Journal of Reading Behavior, 27(4), 643–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ayers, W., Quinn, T., & Stovall, D. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of social justice in education. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Baca, D. (2009). The Chicano Codex: Writing against historical and pedagogical colonization. College English, 71(6), 564–583. Retrieved from Scholar
  10. Bakhtin, M. M. (1984). In C. Emerson (Ed.), Problems of Dostoevsky’s poetics. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bakhtin, M. M. (1986). Speech genres & other late essays (V. W. Mcgee, Trans.; C. Emerson & M. Holoquist, Eds.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  12. Ball, D. L., & Forzani, F. M. (2009). The work of teaching and the challenge for teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(5), 497–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Banks, J. A. (1991). Teaching multicultural literacy to teachers. Teaching Education, 4(1), 135–144. Scholar
  14. Bell, L. A. (2007). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. A. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice: A sourcebook (2nd ed., pp. 1–14). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Bhabha, H. K. (1999). Staging the politics of difference: Homi Bhabha’s critical literacy. In G. Olson & L. Worsham (Eds.), Race, rhetoric, and the postcolonial (pp. 3–39). New York, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bhabha, H. K. (2005). The location of culture. New York, NY: Routledge. (Original Published in 1994).Google Scholar
  17. Bishop, R. S. (1990). Mirrors, windows, and sliding glass doors. Perspectives: Choosing and Using Books for the Classroom6(3), ix–xi.Google Scholar
  18. Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. Madrid, Spain: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Bourdieu, P. (1990). The logic of practice. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bourdieu, P. (1998). Practical reason. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J.-C. (1990). Reproduction in education, society, and culture (2nd ed.). London, England: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  23. Brand, S. (1996). Making parent involvement a reality: Helping teachers develop partnerships with parents. Young Children, 52(1), 76–81.Google Scholar
  24. Brown, K. D. (2013). Trouble on my mind: Toward a framework of humanizing critical sociocultural knowledge for teaching and teacher education. Race Ethnicity and Education, 16, 316–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brown, K. D. (2017). Why we can’t wait: Advancing racial literacy and a critical sociocultural knowledge of race for teaching and curriculum. Race, Gender & Class, 24(1/2), 81–96.Google Scholar
  26. Brown, D. (2018). The grow your own game plan. Educational Leadership, 75(8). Retrieved from
  27. Caspe, M. (2003). Family literacy: A review of programs and critical perspectives (Family Involvement Research Digest). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.Google Scholar
  28. Chall, J. S. (2000). The academic achievement challenge: What really works in the classroom? New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  29. Cherland, M. R., & Harper, H. (2007). Advocacy research in literacy education: Seeking higher ground. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  30. Cho, H. (2017). Navigating the meanings of social justice, teaching for social justice and multicultural education. International Journal of Multicultural Education, 19(2), 1–19. Retrieved from Scholar
  31. Chubbuck, S. M., & Zembylas, M. (2016). Social justice and teacher education: Context, theory, and practice. In J. Loughran & M. L. Hamilton (Eds.), International handbook of teacher education (Vol. 2, pp. 463–501). Singapore, Singapore: Springer Nature. Scholar
  32. Clandinin, J. D., & Connelly, M. (1996). Teachers’ professional knowledge landscapes: Teacher stories – stories of teachers – school stories – stories of schools. Educational Researcher, 25(3), 24–30.Google Scholar
  33. Clegg, L. H. (1975). Who were the first Americans? The Black Scholar, 7(1), 32–41. Retrieved from Scholar
  34. Cochran-Smith, M. (2010). Toward a theory of teacher education for social justice. In A. Hargreaves, A. Lieberman, M. Fullan, & D. Hopkins (Eds.), Second international handbook of educational change (pp. 445–467). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Netherlands. Scholar
  35. Cochran-Smith, M., Barnatt, J., Lahann, R., Shakman, K., & Terrell, D. (2009). Teacher education for social justice: Critiquing the critiques. In W. Ayers, T. Quinn, & D. Stovall (Eds.), Handbook of social justice in education (pp. 625–639). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Cochran-Smith, M., & Villegas, A. M. (2015). Framing teacher preparation research: An overview of the field, part I. Journal of Teacher Education, 66(1), 7–20. Scholar
  37. Cochran-Smith, M., Villegas, A. M., Abrams, L., Chavez-Moreno, L., Mills, T., & Stern, R. (2015). Critiquing teacher preparation research: An overview of the field, part II. Journal of Teacher Education, 66(2), 109–121. Scholar
  38. Collins, J. (1995). Literacy and literacies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24, 75–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Collins, J., & Blot, R. K. (2003). Literacy and literacies: Texts, power, and identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Compton-Lilly, C., Rogers, R., & Lewis, T. Y. (2012). Analyzing epistemological considerations related to diversity: An integrative critical literature review of family literacy scholarship. Reading Research Quarterly, 47(1), 33–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Croom, M. (2016a). Racial literacies: Just reading and writing is deadly in America. Retrieved from literacies-just-reading-and-writing-is-deadly-in-america-8c4ce00caaa4
  42. Croom, M. (2016b). Racing on Facebook: Racial literacies, genres of race, and Black students. In G. Mance (Ed.), The Black experience in an American diaspora. Paper session conducted at the international conference on urban education, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Retrieved from
  43. Croom, M. (2016c). Reading: “The crisis in Black education” from a post-White orientation. Black History Bulletin, 79(2), 18–26.Google Scholar
  44. Croom, M. (2016d). Review of the book Race frameworks: A multidimensional theory of racism and education by Z Leonardo. Journal of Urban Learning, Teaching, and Research, 12, 184–186.Google Scholar
  45. Croom, M. (2018a). Guided racing: Literacy instruction and race production (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago.Google Scholar
  46. Croom, M. (2018b). Meet me at the corner: The intersection of literacy instruction and race for urban education. Urban Education.
  47. Croom, M. (forthcoming). The meaning and practice of race in Barracoon: The story of the last “Black cargo.” The Journal of Negro Education.Google Scholar
  48. Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st-century teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 300–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Darling-Hammond, L., & Sykes, G. (Eds.). (1999). Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.Google Scholar
  50. Delgado Bernal, D., & Alemán, E., Jr. (2017). Transforming educational pathways for Chicana/o students: A critical race feminista praxis. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  51. Delgado-Gaitan, C. (2001). The power of community: Mobilizing for family and schooling. Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  52. Delgado-Gaitan, C. (2005). Reflections from the field family narratives in multiple literacies. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 36(3), 265–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Delpit, L. (2006). Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The New Press.Google Scholar
  54. da Silva Iddings, A. C., & Reyes, I. (2017). Learning with immigrant children, families and communities: The imperative of early childhood teacher education. Early Years, 37(1), 34–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. de Castell, S., & Luke, A. (1983). Defining ‘literacy’ in North American schools: Social and historical conditions and consequences. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 15(4), 373–389. Scholar
  56. Drake, S. C. (1987). Black folk here and there (Vol. 1). Los Angeles, CA: Center for Afro-American Studies.Google Scholar
  57. Du Bois, W. E. B. (1940). Dusk of dawn: An essay toward an autobiography of a race concept. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace and Company.Google Scholar
  58. Du Bois, W. E. B. (2001). The education of Black people: Ten critiques 1906-1960 (H. Aptheker, Ed.). New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  59. Eisner, E. W. (1994). The educational imagination: On the design and evaluation of school programs. New York, NY: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  60. Erickson, F. (1987). Transformation and school success: The politics and culture of educational achievement. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 18(3), 335–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Epstein, J., & Dauber, S. (1991). School programs and teacher practices of parent involvement in inner-city elementary and middle schools. The Elementary School Journal, 91, 279–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Epstein, J., & Sanders, M. (2006). Prospects for change: Preparing educators for school, family and community partnerships. Peabody Journal of Education, 81(2), 81–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Epstein, J. L. (2018). School, family, and community partnerships in teachers’ professional work. Journal of Education for Teaching, 44(3), 397–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Figal, S. E. (2008). Heredity, race, and the birth of the modern. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Fleming, J., Catapano, S., Thompson, C. M., & Carrillo, S. R. (2015). More mirrors in the classroom: Using urban children’s literature to increase literacy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  66. Flores, T. T. (2018). Chicas fuertes: Counterstories of Latinx parents raising strong girls. Bilingual Research Journal, 41(3), 329–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Forster, G. (1958). Werke (Vol. 8). Berlin: Akademie Verlag.Google Scholar
  68. Foucault, M. (1972). The archaeology of knowledge (A. M. Sheridan-Smith, Trans). London, England: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
  69. Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison (A. M. Sheridan-Smith, Trans.). New York, NY: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  70. Foucault, M. (1980). Power and strategies. In M. Foucault, Power/knowledge: Selected Interviews and other writings (pp. 134-145) (C. Gordon, Ed.). New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  71. Freebody, P. (2017). Critical-literacy education: “The supremely educational event”. In B. V. Street & S. May (Eds.), Literacies and language education (3rd ed., pp. 95–107). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Scholar
  72. Freebody, P., & Luke, A. (1990). Literacies programs: Debates and demands in cultural context. Prospect: An Australian Journal of TESOL, 5(3), 7–16.Google Scholar
  73. Freedman, R. (2007). Who was first? Discovering the Americas. New York, NY: Clarion Books.Google Scholar
  74. Freire, P. (1970/2015). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  75. Freire, P. (2005). Teachers as cultural workers. Cambridge, MA: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  76. Gaitan, C. D. (2012). Culture, literacy, and power in family–community–school–relationships. Theory into Practice, 51(4), 305–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Garcia, G. E., & Willis, A. I. (2016). Frameworks for promoting multicultural literacies: Moving toward educational justice. In P. R. Schmidt & M. L. Athier (Eds.), Reconceptualizing literacy in the new age of multiculturalism and pluralism (2nd ed., pp. 3–38). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  78. Gardner, R. P. (2017). Unforgivable Blackness: Visual rhetoric, reader response, and critical racial literacy. Children’s Literature in Education, 48(2), 119–133. Scholar
  79. Gates, H. L. (Ed.). (1986). Race, writing, and difference. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  80. Gándara, P. (2010). The Latino education crisis. Educational Leadership, 67(5), 24–30.Google Scholar
  81. Gomez, M. L. (1994). Teacher education reform and prospective teachers’ perspectives on teaching “other people’s” children. Teaching and Teacher Education, 10(3), 319–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gonzales, N. E., Moll, L., & Amanti, C. (2005). Funds of knowledge: Theorizing practices in households and classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  83. Grant, C. A. (2009). Bottom-up struggle for social justice: Where are the teachers? In W. Ayers, T. Quinn, & D. Stovall (Eds.), Handbook of social justice in education (pp. 640–653). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  84. Gray, S. H. (2012). Kant’s race theory, Forster’s counter, and the metaphysics of color. The Eighteenth Century, 53(4), 393–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Grayson, M. L. (2018). Teaching racial literacy: Reflective practices for critical writing. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  86. Grosfoguel, R. (2013). The structure of knowledge in Westernized universities: Epistemic racism/sexism and the four genocides/epistemicides of the long 16th century. Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge, 9(1), 73–90. Scholar
  87. Grossman, P. (2011). Framework for teaching practice: A brief history of an idea. Teachers College Record, 113(12), 2836–2843.Google Scholar
  88. Grossman, P., Compton, C., Igra, D., Ronfeldt, M., Shahan, E., & Williamson, P. W. (2009). Teaching practice: A cross-professional perspective. Teachers College Record, 111(9), 2055–2100.Google Scholar
  89. Gonzalez, N., Moll, L. C., & Amanti, C. (2005). Funds of knowledge: Theorizing practices in households, communities, and classrooms. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  90. Guillén, L. I., Gimenes, C. I., & Zeichner, K. M. (2016). Teacher education for educational and social transformation. In J. Loughran & M. L. Hamilton (Eds.), International handbook of teacher education (Vol. 2, pp. 239–272). Singapore, Singapore: Springer Nature. Scholar
  91. Guinier, L. (2003). Admissions rituals as political acts: Guardians at the gates of our democratic ideals. Harvard Law Review, 117(1), 113–225.Google Scholar
  92. Guinier, L. (2004). From racial liberalism to racial literacy: Brown v. Board of Education and the interest-divergence dilemma. Journal of American History, 91, 92–118.Google Scholar
  93. Hargreaves, A., & Goodson, I. (2006). Educational change over time? The sustainability and nonsustainability of three decades of secondary school change and continuity. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42(1), 3–41. Scholar
  94. Heath, S. B. (1983). Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hedges, H., & Gibbs, C. (2005). Preparation for teacher-parent partnerships: A practical experience with a family. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 26, 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hoover, M. R. (1990). A vindicationist perspective on the role of Ebonics (Black language) and other aspects of ethnic studies in the university. American Behavioral Scientist, 34(2), 251–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Horsford, S. D. (2014). When race enters the room: Improving leadership and learning through racial literacy. Theory Into Practice, 53(2), 123–130. Scholar
  98. Hurston, Z. N. (2018). Barracoon: The story of the last “Black Cargo”(D. G. Plant, Ed.). New York: Amistad.Google Scholar
  99. Hyland, N. E., & Meacham, S. (2004). Community knowledge-centered teacher education: A paradigm for socially just educational transformation. In J. Kincheloe, A. Bursztyn, & S. Steinberg (Eds.), Teaching teachers: Building a quality school of urban education (pp. 113–134). New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  100. International Literacy Association and National Council of Teachers of English. (2017). Literacy teacher preparation [Research advisory]. Newark, DE; Urbana, IL: Authors. Retrieved from
  101. Jackson, P. W. (1968). Life in classrooms. New York, NY: Hole, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  102. James, V., & Gallagher, J. (2015). Black ice: The Val James story. Toronto, ON: ECW Press.Google Scholar
  103. Jernigan, M. M., & Daniel, J. H. (2011). Racial trauma in the lives of Black children and adolescents: Challenges and clinical implications. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 4(2), 123–141. Scholar
  104. Johnson, M. T. (2009). Race(ing) around in rhetoric and composition circles: Racial literacy as the way out. (Doctoral dissertation), University of North Carolina at Greensboro.Google Scholar
  105. Kaufman, M. J. (2007). Reading, writing, and race: The constitutionality of educational strategies designed to teach racial literacy. University of Richmond Law Review, 42, 707–757.Google Scholar
  106. Kavanagh, S. S. (2017). Practicing social justice: Toward a practice-based approach to learning to teach for social justice. In R. Brandenburg, K. Glasswell, M. Jones, & J. Ryan (Eds.), Reflective theory and practice in teacher education (pp. 161–175). Singapore, Singapore: Springer Nature. Scholar
  107. Kendi, I. X. (2016). Stamped from the beginning: The definitive history of racial ideas in America. New York, NY: Nation Books.Google Scholar
  108. Kendi, I. X. (2019). How to be an antiracist. New York, NY: One World.Google Scholar
  109. King, J. E. (2006). “If justice is our objective”: Diaspora literacy, heritage knowledge and the praxis of critical studyin’ for human freedom. In A. F. Ball (Ed.), With more deliberate speed: Achieving equity and excellence in education—Realizing the full potential of Brown v. Board of Education (NSSE 105th, pp. 337–357). New York, NY: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  110. King, J. E. (2008). Critical & qualitative research in teacher education: A Blues epistemology for cultural well-being and a reason for knowing. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, D. J. McIntyre, & K. E. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring questions in changing contexts (3rd ed., pp. 1094–1136). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  111. King, J. E. (2015). Dysconscious racism, Afrocentric praxis, and education for human freedom: Through the years I keep on toiling. New York, NY: Routledge. Scholar
  112. King, J. E. (2017). Education research in the Black liberation tradition: Return what you learn to the people. The Journal of Negro Education, 86(2), 95–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. King, L. J., Vickery, A. E., & Caffrey, G. (2018). A pathway to racial literacy: Using the LETS ACT framework to teach controversial issues. Social Education, 82(6), 316–322.Google Scholar
  114. Kreisberg, J. (1992). Transforming power: Domination, empowerment, and education. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  115. Kynard, C. (2013). Vernacular insurrections: Race, black protest, and the new century in composition-literacies studies. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  116. Lacan, J. (1977). Écrits: A selection (A. Sheridan, Trans.). New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  117. Ladson-Billings, G. (1991). Beyond multicultural illiteracy. Journal of Negro Education, 60(2), 147–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Education Research Journal, 35, 465–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ladson-Billings, G. (2016). And then there is this thing called the curriculum: Organization, imagination, and mind. Educational Researcher, 45(2), 100–104. Scholar
  120. Ladson-Billings, G. J. (1999). Preparing teachers for diverse student populations: A critical race theory perspective. Review of Research in Education, 24(1), 211–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Lee, E., Menkart, D., & Okaazawa-Rey, M. (Eds.). (2006). Beyond heroes and holidays: A practical guide to K-12 antiracist, multicultural education and staff development. Washington, DC: Teaching for Change.Google Scholar
  123. LeFevre, A. L., & Shaw, T. V. (2011). Latino parent involvement and school success: Longitudinal effects of formal and informal support. Education and Urban Society, 44(6), 707–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Leonardo, Z., & Manning, L. (2017). White historical activity theory: Toward a critical understanding of white zones of proximal development. Race Ethnicity and Education, 20(1), 15–29. Scholar
  125. Lightfoot, D. (2004). “Some parents just don’t care:” Decoding the meanings of parental involvement in urban schools. Urban Education, 39(1), 91–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Literacy Research Association. (2016). The role of literacy research in racism and racial violence. A statement endorsed by the Literacy Research Association. Retrieved from Scholar
  127. Markus, H. R., & Moya, P. M. (Eds.). (2010). Doing race: 21 essays for the 21st century. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  128. McDonald, M., & Zeichner, K. (2009). Social justice teacher education. In W. Ayers, T. Quinn, & D. Stovall (Eds.), Handbook of social justice in education (pp. 595–610). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  129. Milner, H. R. (2013). Analyzing poverty, learning, and teaching through a critical race theory lens. Review of Research in Education, 37(1), 1–53. Scholar
  130. Milner, H. R. (2008). Disrupting deficit notions of difference: Counter-narratives of teachers and community in urban education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(6), 1573–1598.Google Scholar
  131. Milner, H. R., Cunningham, H. B., Delale-O’Connor, L., & Kestenberg, E. G. (2019). “These kids are out of control”: Why we must reimagine “classroom management” for equity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Google Scholar
  132. Moll, L. C., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31(2), 132–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Noddings, N. (1984). Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral education. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  134. O’Connor, C., Lewis, A., & Mueller, J. (2007). Researching “Black” educational experiences and outcomes: Theoretical and methodological considerations. Educational Researcher, 36(9), 541–552. Scholar
  135. Payne, C. M. (2010). So much reform, so little change: The persistence of failure in urban schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  136. Pinder, S. O. (2012). Whiteness and racialized ethnic groups in the United States: The politics of remembering. Lanham, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  137. Pollock, M. (Ed.). (2008). Everyday antiraciam: Getting real about race in school. New York, NY: The New Press.Google Scholar
  138. Pugach, M. C., Gomez-Najarro, J., & Matewos, A. M. (2018). A review of identity in research on social justice in teacher education: What role for intersectionality? Journal of Teacher Education.
  139. Rabaka, R. (2003). W.E.B. Du Bois’s evolving Africana philosophy of education. Journal of Black Studies, 33(4), 399–449. Scholar
  140. Rabaka, R. (2006). The souls of Black radical folk: W. E. B. Du Bois, critical social theory, and the state of Africana studies. Journal of Black Studies, 36(5), 732–763.
  141. Rabaka, R. (2009). Africana critical theory: Reconstructing the Black radical tradition, from W. E. B. Du Bois and C. L. R. James to Frantz Fanon and Amilcar Cabral. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  142. Ramirez, D. (2010). Building family support for student achievement: CABE Project INSPIRE Parent Leadership Development Program (Conference ed., California Association for Bilingual Education). Multilingual Educator, 6–12.Google Scholar
  143. Reyes, D. V. (2019). Racial literacy as a curricular requirement. Retrieved March 11, 2019, from
  144. Richert, A. E., Donahue, D. M., & Laboskey, V. K. (2009). Preparing white teachers to teach in a racist nation: What do they need to know and be able to do? In W. Ayers, T. Quinn, & D. Stovall (Eds.), Handbook of social justice in education (pp. 640–653). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  145. Riojas-Cortez, M., & Flores, B. B. (2009). Sin olvidar a los padres: Families collaborating within school and university partnerships. Journal of Latinos and Education, 8(3), 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Robinson, C. J. (2007). Forgeries of memory and meaning: Blacks and the regimes of race in American theater and film before World War II. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  147. Rogers, R., & Mosley, M. (2008). A critical discourse analysis of racial literacy in teacher education. Linguistics and Education, 19, 107–131. Scholar
  148. Said, E. W. (1994). Culture and imperialism. New York, NY: Vintage.Google Scholar
  149. Said, E. W. (2003/1979). Orientalism. New York: Pantheon. (Originally published in 1979)Google Scholar
  150. Sanders, R., Stovall, D., & White, T. (2018). Twenty-first-century Jim Crow schools: The impact of charters on public education. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  151. Schmidt, P. R., & Lazar, A. M. (Eds.). (2016). Reconceptualizing literacy in the new age of multiculturalism and pluralism (2nd ed.). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing Inc..Google Scholar
  152. Sealey-Ruiz, Y., & Greene, P. (2015). Popular visual images and the (mis) reading of Black male youth: A case for racial literacy in urban preservice teacher education. Teaching Education, 26(February 2015), 37–41. Scholar
  153. Shujaa, M. (Ed.). (1994). Too much schooling, too little education: A paradox of Black life in White societies. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.Google Scholar
  154. Sleeter, C. (2009). Teacher education, neoliberalism, and social justice. In W. Ayers, T. Quinn, & D. Stovall (Eds.), Handbook of social justice in education (pp. 611–624). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  155. Sleeter, C. E. (2008). Equity, democracy, and neoliberal assaults on teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(8), 1947–1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sleeter, C. E. (2015, February). Deepening social justice teaching. Journal of Language and Literacy Education. [Online]. Retrieved from
  157. Souto-Manning, M., & Swick, K. J. (2006). Teachers’ beliefs about parent and family involvement: Rethinking our family involvement paradigm. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(2), 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Spalding, E. (2013). Social justice and teacher education: Where do we stand? In X. Zhu & K. Zeichner (Eds.), Preparing teachers for the 21st century (pp. 283–296). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. Scholar
  159. Spivak, G. (1988). Can the subaltern speak? In C. Nelson & L. Grossberg (Eds.), Marxism and the interpretation of culture (pp. 271–313). Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Spring, J. (2018). American education (18th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  161. Spry, T. (2017). Autoethnography and the other: Performative embodiment and a bid for utopia. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (pp. 627–649). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  162. Stevenson, H. C. (2014). Promoting racial literacy in schools: Differences that make a difference. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  163. Street, B. (1993). Cross-cultural approaches to literacy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  164. Street, B. V. (2003a). Foreword. In J. Collins & R. K. Blot (Eds.), Literacy and literacies: Texts, power, and identity (pp. xi–xv). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Street, B. V. (2003b). What’s “new” in new literacy studies? Critical approaches to literacy in theory and practice. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 5(2), 77–91.Google Scholar
  166. Street, B. V. (2011). New literacy studies. In M. Grenfell, D. Bloome, J. Rowsell, & B. Street (Eds.), Language, ethnography, and education: Bridging new literacy studies and Bourdieu (pp. 27–49). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  167. Tedlock, B. (2017). Braiding narrative ethnography with memoir and creative nonfiction. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (pp. 854–866). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  168. Torres, M. N., & Hurtado-Vivas, R. (2011). Playing fair with Latino parents as parents, not teachers: Beyond family literacy as assisting homework. Journal of Latinos and Education, 10(3), 223–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Toure, J., & Thompson Dorsey, D. N. (2018). Stereotypes, images, and inclination to discriminatory action: The White racial frame in the practice of school leadership. Teachers College Record, 120(2), 1–38.Google Scholar
  170. Tozer, S. E., Senese, G., & Violas, P. C. (2009). School and society: Historical and contemporary perspectives. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  171. Twine, F. W. (2004). A white side of black Britain: The concept of racial literacy. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 27(6), 878–907. Scholar
  172. Twine, F. W., & Steinbugler, A. C. (2006). The gap between Whites and Whiteness: Interracial intimacy and racial literacy. Du Bois Review, 2(2), 341–363.Google Scholar
  173. Valencia, R. R. (1997). Conceptualizing the notion of deficit thinking. In R. Valencia (Ed.), The evolution of deficit thinking: Educational thought and practice (pp. 1–12). London, England: The Farmer Press.Google Scholar
  174. Valencia, R., & Solórzano, D. (1997) Contemporary deficit thinking. In R. Valencia (Ed.) The evolution of deficit thinking in educational thought and practice (pp. 160–210). New York, NY: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  175. Valenzuela, A. (Ed.). (2016). Growing critically conscious teachers: A social justice curriculum for educators of Latino/a youth. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  176. Valenzuela, A. (2017). Grow Your Own Educators programs: A review of the literature with an emphasis on equity-based approach (Intercultural Development Research Association report). Retrieved from
  177. Valdés, G. (1996). Con respeto: Bridging the distances between culturally and linguistically diverse families and schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  178. Villegas, A. M., & Irvine, J. J. (2010). Diversifying the teaching force: An examination of major arguments. The Urban Review, 42(3), 175–192. Scholar
  179. Wenger, E. (1999). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  180. West, C. (1993). Race matters. Boston, MA: Beacon.Google Scholar
  181. Westheimer, J., & Suurtamm, K. (2009). The politics of social justice meets practice: Teacher education and school change. In W. Ayers, T. Quinn, & D. Stovall (Eds.), Handbook of social justice in education (pp. 589–594). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  182. Whitehouse, M., & Colvin, C. (2001). Reading families: Deficit discourse and family literacy. Theory into Practice, 40(3), 212–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Whiting, G. W. (2015). Only the puck was Black: A story of race and the NHL. Retrieved from
  184. Williams, M. T., Metzger, I. W., Leins, C., & DeLapp, C. (2018). Assessing racial trauma within a DSM–5 framework: The UConn Racial/Ethnic Stress & Trauma Survey. Practice Innovations, 3(4), 242–260. Scholar
  185. Willis, A. I. (2015). Literacy and race: Access, equity, and freedom. Literacy Research: Theory, Method, and Practice, 64(1), 23–55. Scholar
  186. Willis, A. I. (2017). Critical race theory. In B. V. Street & S. May (Eds.), Literacies and language education (3rd ed., pp. 17–29). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Scholar
  187. Willis, A. I., Montavon, M., Hall, H., Hunter, C., Burke, L., & Herrera, A. (2008). On critically conscious research: Approaches to language and literacy research. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  188. Winans, A. E. (2010). Cultivating racial literacy in white, segregated settings: Emotions as site of ethical engagement and inquiry. Curriculum Inquiry, 40(1988), 475–491. Scholar
  189. Woodson, C. G. (1933). The mis-education of the Negro. Washington D.C.: The Associated Publishers.Google Scholar
  190. Wynter, S. (2003). Unsettling the coloniality of being/power/truth/freedom: Towards the human, after man, its overrepresentation – An argument. CR: The New Centennial Review, 3(3), 257–337. Scholar
  191. Yosso, T. J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8(1), 69–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Zeichner, K. (2010). Competition, economic rationalization, increased surveillance, and attacks on diversity: Neo-liberalism and the transformation of teacher education in the US. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(8), 1544–1552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Zeichner, K., Bowman, M., Guillen, L., & Napolitan, K. (2016). Engaging and working in solidarity with local communities in preparing the teachers of their children. Journal of Teacher Education, 67(4), 277–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Zentella, A. C. (Ed.). (2005). Building on strength: Language and literacy in Latino families and communities. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcus Croom
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tracey T. Flores
    • 2
  • George Kamberelis
    • 3
  1. 1.Educational ConsultantBrio Education ConsultingOak ParkUSA
  2. 2.Language and LiteracyThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  3. 3.Education DepartmentWestern Colorado UniversityGunnisonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Marta Sánchez
    • 1
  1. 1.Instructional Technology, Foundations, and Secondary EducationUniversity of North Carolina WilmingtonWilmingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations