Advertisement

A Review on Treatment of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in Water and Wastewater

  • Mukesh Goel
  • Ashutosh Das
Reference work entry

Abstract

Water is the central element of all vital social and economic processes. Because of the development of consumer society, harmful chemicals are being generated in huge quantities throughout the world. The problems derived from the toxicological effects of these organic compounds must be resolved for the benefits of the entire society. The problem is certainly complex, and it is imperative that novel procedures are required to deal with this extensive range of tribulations. Though there are plenty of water treatment methods, a significant number of chemicals are still present in “clean” water. These chemicals are referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs).

Some emerging contaminants have been used for a long time but have only recently been discovered in lakes, rivers, and groundwater – our drinking water sources. Emerging contaminants are of many types and have many sources. One large group consists of the pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) that we purchase and use regularly. Other categories include certain pesticides, nanomaterials, flame retardants, and plasticizers. Major sources of these chemicals include residential, agricultural, and industrial activities. This chapter reviews the various treatment technologies presently available for PPCP removal.

Keywords

Emerging contaminant (ECs) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) Treatment Water Wastewater 

References

  1. Andreozzi R (2001) Carbamazepine in water: persistence in the environment, ozonation treatment and preliminary assessment on algal toxicity. Water Res 36:2869–2877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreozzi R, Caprio V, Insola A, Longo G, Tufano V (2000) Photocatalytic oxidation of 4-nitrophenol in aqueous TiO2 slurries: an experimental validation of literature kinetic models. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 75:131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antoniasdis A, Takavakoglou V, Zalidis G, Poulios I (2007) Development and evaluation of an alternative method for municipal wastewater treatment using homogeneous photocatalysis and constructed wetlands. Catal Today 124:260–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aslam MM, Malik M, Baig MA, Qazi IA, Iqbal J (2007) Treatment performances of compost based and gravel based vertical flow wetlands operated identically for refinery wastewater treatment in Pakistan. Ecol Eng 30:34–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ávila C, Pedescoll A, Matamoros V, Bayona JM, García J (2010) Capacity of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system for the removal of emerging pollutants: an injection experiment. Chemosphere 81:1137–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avsar Y, Tarabeah H, Kimchie S, Ozturk I (2007) Rehabilitation by constructed wetlands of available wastewater treatment plant in Sakhnin. Ecol Eng 29(1):27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bae S, Kim D, Lee W (2013) Environmental degradation of diclofenac by pyrite catalyzed Fenton oxidation. Appl Catal B Environ 134–135:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barceló D, Petrovic M (2007) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products EDCs in the environment. Anal Bioanal Chem 387:1141–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brain RA, Johnson DJ, Richards SM, Hanson MA, Sanderson H, Lam MW, Young C, Mabury SA, Sibley PK, Solomon KR (2004) Microcosm evaluation of the effects of an eight pharmaceutical mixture to the aquatic macrophytes Lemna gibba and Myriophyllum sibiricum. Aquat Toxicol 70:23–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calheiros SC, Rangel A, Castro P (2007) Constructed wetland 202 systems vegetated with different plants for the treatment of tannery wastewater. Water Res 41:1790–1798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chatterjee S, Lee DS, Lee MW, Woo SH (2009) Congo red adsorption from aqueous by using chitosan hydrogel beads impregnated with nonionic or anionic solutions surfactant. Bioresour Technol 100:3862–3868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chon K, Kyongshon H, Cho J (2012) Membrane bioreactor and nanofiltration hybrid system for reclamation of municipal wastewater: removal of nutrients, organic matter and micropollutants. Bioresour Technol 122:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crini G, Badot P-M (2008) Application of chitosan, a natural aminopolysaccharide, for dye removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption processes using batch studies: a review of recent literature. Prog Polym Sci 33:399–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deng J, Shao Y, Gao N, Xia S, Tan C, Zhou S, Hu X (2013) Degradation of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine upon different UV-based advanced oxidation processes in water. Chem Eng J 222:150–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garoma et al (2010) Removal of sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfathiazole from aqueous solution by ozonation. Chemosphere 79:814–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gomes J, Leal I, Bednarczyk K, Gmurek M, Stelmachowski M, Zaleska-Medynska A, Gómez MJ, Herrera S, Solé D, García-Calvo E, Fernández-Alba AR (2012) Spatio-temporal evaluation of organic contaminants and their transformation products along a river basin affected by urban, agricultural and industrial pollution. Sci Total Environ 420:134–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gomes J, Costa R, Quinta-Ferreira RM, Martins RC (2017) Application of ozonation for pharmaceuticals and personal care products removal from water. Sci Total Environ 586:265–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gouvea C, Wypych F, Moraes S, Durán N, Zamora P (2000) Semiconductor-assisted photodegradation of lignin, dye and Kraft effluent by Ag-dopped ZnO. Chemosphere 40:427–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guibal E, Vooren MV, Dempsey BA, Roussy J (2006) A review of the use of chitosan for the removal of particulate and dissolved contaminants. Sci Technol 41:2487–2514Google Scholar
  20. Heberer T (2002) Occurrence, fate, and removal of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment: a review of recent research data. Toxicol Lett 131:5–17Google Scholar
  21. Herrmann JM (1999) Heterogeneous photocatalysis: fundamentals and applications to removal of various types of aqueous pollutants. Catal Today 53:115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hijosa-Valsero M, Matamoros V, Pedescoll A, Martín-Villacorta J, Bécares E, García J, Bayona JM (2011) Evaluation of primary treatment and loading regimes in the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products from urban wastewaters by subsurface-flow constructed wetlands. Int J Environ Anal Chem 91:632–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huber MM et al (2005) Oxidation of pharmaceuticals during ozonation of municipal wastewater effluents: a pilot study. Environ Sci Technol 39:4290–4299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huett DO, Marris SG, Smith G, Hunt N (2005) Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from plant nursery runoff in vegetated and unvegetated subsurface flow wetlands. Water Res 39(14):3259–3272. J Environ Chem Eng 5:3065–3074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klavarioti M, Mantzavinos D, Kassinos D (2009) Removal of residual pharmaceuticals from aqueous systems by advanced oxidation processes. Environ Int 35(2):402–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Buxton HT (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, (1999–2000) a national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36(6):1202–1211Google Scholar
  27. Kummerer K (2009) The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment due to human use-present knowledge and future challenges. J Environ Manag 90:2354–2366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kyle E, Murray SM (2010) Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment. Environ Pollut 158:3462–3471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee CO, Howe KJ, Thomson BM (2012) Ozone and biofiltration as an alternative to reverse osmosis for removing EDCs and micropollutants from treated wastewater. Water Res 46(10):05–14Google Scholar
  30. Lindberg R, Bjorklund K, Rendahl P, Johansson M, Tysklind M, Andersson B (2007) Environmental risk assessment of antibiotics in the Swedish environment with emphasis on sewage treatment plants. Water Res 41:613–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Márquez G, Rodríguez EM, Beltrán FJ, Alvarez PM (2014) Solar photocatalytic ozonation of a mixture of pharmaceutical compounds in water. Chemosphere 113:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Matamoros V, Bayona JM (2006) Elimination of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Environ Sci Technol 40:5811–5816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Matamoros V, Salvadó V (2013) Evaluation of a coagulation/flocculation-lamellar clarifier and filtration-UV-chlorination reactor for removing emerging contaminants at full-scale wastewater treatment plants in Spain. J Environ Manag 15:96–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Matamoros V, García J, Bayona JM (2005) Behavior of selected pharmaceuticals in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: a pilot-scale study. Environ Sci Technol 39:5449–5454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Matamoros V, Arias C, Brix H, Bayona JM (2007) Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from urban wastewater in a pilot vertical flow constructed wetland and a sand filter. Environ Sci Technol 41:8171–8177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mohapatra DP, Brar SK, Tyagi RD, Picard P, Surampalli RY (2013) A comparative study of ultrasonication, Fenton’s oxidation and ferro-sonication treatment for degradation of carbamazepine from wastewater and toxicity test by yeast estrogen screen YES assay. Sci Total Environ 447:280–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nassar NN (2010) Kinetics, mechanistic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of acid red dye from wastewater by Fe2O3 nanoadsorbents. Sci Technol 45:1092–1103Google Scholar
  38. Nie E, Yang M, Wang D, Yang X, Luo X, Zheng Z (2014) Chemosphere degradation of diclofenac by ultrasonic radiation: kinetic studies and degradation pathways. Chemosphere 113:165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ochando-Pulido JM, Hodaifa G, Victor-Ortega MD, Martinez-Ferez A (2013) A novel photocatalyst with ferromagnetic core used for the treatment of olive oil mill effluents from two-phase production process. Sci World J 2013, Article ID 196470, 9Google Scholar
  40. Ong SK, Lertpaitoonpara W, Bhandari A, Limpiyakorn T (2009) Antimicrobials and antibiotics in contaminants of emerging environmental concern, American Society of Civil Engineers, USGoogle Scholar
  41. Park N, Vanderford BJ, Snyder SA, Sarp S, Kim SD, Cho J (2009) Effective controls of micropollutants included in wastewater effluent using constructed wetlands under anoxic conditions. Ecol Eng 35:418–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Parrott JL, Bennie DT (2009) Life-cycle exposure of fathead minnows to a mixture of six common pharmaceuticals and triclosan. J Toxicol Environ Health 72:633–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Parrott JL, Blunt BR (2005) Life-cycle exposures of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to an ethinylestradiol concentration below 1 ng/L reduces egg fertilization success and demasculinizes males. Environ Toxicol 20:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Phillips P, Smith S, Koplin D, Zaugg S, Buxton H, Furlong E et al (2010) Pharmaceutical formulation facilities as sources of opioids other pharmaceuticals to wastewater treatment plant effluents. Environ Sci Technol 44:4910–4916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Quintana JB, Weiss S, Reemtsma T (2005) Pathways and metabolites of microbial degradation of selected acidic pharmaceutical and their occurrence in municipal wastewater treated by a membrane bioreactor. Water Res 39:2654–2664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Renugoat J, Escher BI, Macova M, Argaud FX, Gernjak W, Keller J (2012) Ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration of wastewater treatment plant effluents. Water Res 46:863–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rosal R, Rodriguez A, Perdigon-Melon JA, Petre A, Garcia-Calvo E, Gomez MJ (2010) Occurrence of emerging pollutants in urban wastewater and their removal through biological treatment followed by ozonation. Water Res 44:578–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ruzmanova I, Stoller M, Chianese A (2013) Photocatalytic treatment of olive mill waste water by magnetic core titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Chem Eng 32:2269–2274Google Scholar
  49. Sahar E, David I, Gelman Y, Chikurel H, Aharoni A, Messalem R, Brenner A (2011) The use of RO to remove emergingmicropollutants following CAS/UF or MBR treatment of municipal wastewater. Desalination 273:142–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Scheurer M, Storck FR, Graf C, Brauch HJ, Ruck W, Lev O (2011) Correlation of six anthropogenic markers in wastewater, surface water, bank filtrate, and soil aquifer treatment. J Environ Monit 13:966–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Serrano D, Suárez S, Lema JM, Omil F (2011) Removal of persistent pharmaceutical micropollutants from sewage by addition of PAC in a sequential membrane bioreactor. Water Res 45:5323–5333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Snyder SA, Wert EC, Rexing DJ, Zegers RE, Drury DD (2006) Ozone oxidation of endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals in surface water and wastewater. Ozone Sci Eng 28(6):445–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Snyder SA, Adham S, Redding AM, Cannon FS, DeCarolis J, Oppenheimer J, Wert EC, Yoon Y (2007) Role of membranes and activated carbon in the removal of endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals. Desalination 202:156–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Song H-L, Nakano K, Taniguchi T, Nomura M, Nishimura O (2009) Estrogen removal from treated municipal effluent in small-scale constructed wetland with different depth. Bioresour Technol 100:2945–2951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sotelo JL, Rodríguez AR, Mateos MM, Hernández SD, Torrellas SA, Rodríguez JG (2012) Adsorption of pharmaceutical compounds and an endocrine disruptor from aqueous solutions by carbon materials. J Environ Sci Health B 47(7):640–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Von Gunten U (2003) Ozonation of drinking water: part I. Oxidation kinetics and product formation. Water Res 37(7):1443–1467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Xu J, Wu A (2009) Degradation and adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products EDCs in agricultural soils. Chemosphere 77:1299–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yang X, Flowers RC, Weinberg HS, Singer PC (2011) Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products EDCs in an advanced wastewater reclamation plant. Water Res 45:5218–5228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yeber MC, Rodriguez J, Freer J, Dur E, Mansilla H (2000) Photocatalytic degradation of cellulose bleaching effluent by supported TiO2 and ZnO. Chemosphere 41:1193–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yoon Y, Westerhoff P, Snyder SA (2005) Adsorption of 3H-labeled 17-bestradiol on powdered activated carbon. Water Air Soil Pollut 166:343–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhou J, Zhang Z, Banks E, Grover D, Jiangb J (2009) Pharmaceutical residues in wastewater treatment works effluents and their impact on receiving river water. J Hazard Mater 166:655–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhu Z, Xi J, Zhang M, Zhou Q, Liu F (2016) Insight into the adsorption of PPCPs by porous adsorbents: effect of the properties of adsorbents and adsorbates. Environ Pollut 214:524–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhuo N, Lan Y, Yang W, ZhenYang X, Zhou X, Yang L (2017) Adsorption of three selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) onto MIL-101(Cr)/natural polymer composite beads. Sep Purif Technol 177:272–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zimmermann SG, Wittenwiler M, Hollender J, Krauss M, Ort C, Siegrist H, von Gunten U (2011) Kinetic assessment and modeling of an ozonation step for full-scale municipal wastewater treatment: micropollutant oxidation, by-product formation and disinfection. Water Res 45(2):605–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mukesh Goel
    • 1
  • Ashutosh Das
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Environmental Engg.PRIST Deemed UniversityThanjavurIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations