Advertisement

An Evaluation of Usage of Methyl Esters of Jatropha and Fish Oil for Environmental Protection

  • S. SendilvelanEmail author
  • K. Bhaskar
Reference work entry

Abstract

Energy sources are an essential input in the areas of any production, but unfortunately the energy sources available not only are limited in volume and quality but also whatever is available are fast getting depleted; preserving is necessary for mankind to develop nonconventional sources of energy that not only fulfills the demand but also at the same time keeps the environment clean or green. Biodiesel takes its place as the most promising alternate fuel because of its renewability and sustainability. More stringent emission standards are being introduced all over the world with the aim of progressively reducing vehicular emission leading research to alternative combustion technologies and alternative fuels. It is high time that alternate fuels for engines are produced from indigenous sources; Jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) from the nonedible category and fish oil methyl ester (FOME) from animal fat category have been identified as alternative fuels for this investigation. Even though biodiesel offers reduction in smoke, UBHC, and CO emissions due to the molecular oxygen present in it, NOx emissions are higher which can be reduced by using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). This experimental investigation work though confined to analyzing the performance and emission characteristics with diesel and 20% methyl esters with and without EGR in a diesel engine also has its objective in analyzing the aggregate effect of exhaust gas recirculation with diesel and biodiesel blends. This chapter also reviews the possibility, availability, economic, and cost analysis in depth.

Keywords

Jatropha methyl esters Fish oil methyl esters Environmental sustainability Pollution control Exhaust gas recirculation Cost analysis 

Abbreviations

$

Us Dollars

%

Percentage

°

Degree

BSFC

Brake-specific energy consumption

bTDC

Before Top Dead Center

C

Centigrade

CIDI

Compression ignition direct injection

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

cSt

Centistokes

CV

Lower calorific value

DI

Direct injection

ECU

Electronic control unit

EGR

Exhaust gas recirculation

FSN

Filter smoke number

H2O

Water

HC

Hydrocarbon

J

Joules

JOME

Jatropha oil methyl ester

K

Kelvin

kJ/kg

Kilo joules per kilogram

NO

Nitric oxide

NO2

Nitrogen dioxide

NOx

Oxides of nitrogen

PM

Particulate matter

ppm

Parts per million

rpm

Revolutions per minute

s

Seconds

SO2

Sulfur dioxide

SOF

Soluble organic fractions

UBHC

Unburnt hydrocarbon

References

  1. Bari S, Yu CW, Lim, TH (2004) Effect of injection timing with waste cooking oil as a fuel in a direct injection engine. Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs Part-D J. Automobile Engineering, 218:93–104.  https://doi.org/10.1243/095440704322829209
  2. Barnwal BK, Sharma MP (2005) Prospects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils in India. Renew Sust Energ Rev 9:363–378.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2004.05.007
  3. Bergthorson JM, Thomson MJ (2015) A review of the combustion and emissions properties of advanced transportation biofuels and their impact on existing and future engines. Renew Sust Energ Rev 42:1393–1417.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.10.034
  4. Bhaskar K, Sendilvelan S, Muthu V, Aravindraj S (2016) Performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine using methyl ester blends of jatropha and fish oil. J Mech Eng Sci (JMES) ISSN Print 10:2289–4659.  https://doi.org/10.15282/jmes.10.2.2016.4.0188
  5. Buyukkaya E (2010) Effects of biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics. Fuel 89:3099–3105.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.05.034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cardone M, Prati MV, Rocco V et al (2002) Brassica carinata as an alternative oil crop for the production of biodiesel in Italy: engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions. Environ Sci Technol 36:4656–4662.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es011078yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Demirbas A (2008a) Relationships derived from physical properties of vegetable oil and biodiesel fuels. Fuel 87:1743–1748.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2007.08.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Demirbas A (2008b) Comparison of transesterification methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats. Energy Convers Manag 49:125–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2007.05.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Demirbas A (2010) Future fuels for internal combustion engines. Energy Sources Part A Recovery Utilization Environ Effects 32:1273–1281.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15567030903060317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dorado MP, Ballesteros E, Arnal JM et al (2003) Exhaust emissions from a diesel engine fueled with transesterified waste olive oil. Fuel 82:1311–1315.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(03)00034-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Geller DP, Goodrum JW (2004) Effects of specific fatty acid methyl esters on diesel fuel lubricity. Fuel 83:2351–2356.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2004.06.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Helwani Z, Othman MR, Aziz N et al (2009) Technologies for production of biodiesel focusing on green catalytic techniques: a review. Fuel Process Technol 90:1502–1514.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2009.07.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundementals. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Khalid K, Khalid K (2011) Transesterification of palm oil for the production of biodiesel. Am J Appl Sci 8:804–809.  https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2011.804.809
  15. Khan SA, Rashmi HMZ et al (2009) Prospects of biodiesel production from microalgae in India. Renew Sust Energ Rev 13:2361–2372.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.04.005
  16. Knothe G, Van Gerpen JH, Krahl JJ, Van Gerpen JH (2005) The biodiesel handbook. AOCS Publishing, UrbanaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Labecki L, Ganippa LC (2012) Effects of injection parameters and EGR on combustion and emission characteristics of rapeseed oil and its blends in diesel engines. Fuel 98:15–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.03.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lapuerta M, Armas O, Rodriguezfernandez J (2008) Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions. Prog Energy Combust Sci 34:198–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2007.07.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leduc S, Natarajan K, Dotzauer E et al (2009) Optimizing biodiesel production in India. Appl Energy.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.05.024
  20. Lin C-Y, Lin H-A (2006) Diesel engine performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel produced by the peroxidation process. Fuel 85:298–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2005.05.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ma F, Hanna MA (1999) Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresour Technol 70:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00025-5
  22. Meher L, Vidyasagar D, Naik S (2006a) Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification – a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 10:248–268.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2004.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meher LC, Vidya Sagar D, Naik SN (2006b) Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification – a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 10:248–268.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2004.09.002
  24. Murali Manohar R, Prabhahar M, Sendilvelan S (2012) Experimental investigation of combustion and emission characteristics of engine is fueled with diesel and UVOME blends of B20K and B80K. Eur J Sci Res 76:327–334Google Scholar
  25. Nabi MN, Rahman MM, Akhter MS (2009) Biodiesel from cotton seed oil and its effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions. Appl Therm Eng 29:2265–2270.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.11.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nahar K, Ozores-hampton M (2011) Jatropha: an alternative substitute to fossil fuel. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Gainesville, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  27. Park SH, Suh HK, Lee CS (2010) Nozzle flow and atomization characteristics of ethanol blended biodiesel fuel. Renew Energy 35:144–150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2009.06.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Raj CS, Arul S, Sendilvelan S, Saravanan CG (2010) A comparative assessment on performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fumigating with methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, and liquefied petroleum gas. Energy Sources Part A Recovery Utilization Environ Effects 32:1603–1613.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15567030902787753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rao PV (2011) Experimental investigations on the influence of properties of Jatropha biodiesel on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of a DI-CI engine. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 5:629–642Google Scholar
  30. Rao GLN, Sampath S, Rajagopal K (2008) Experimental studies on the combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with used cooking oil methyl ester and its diesel blends. Int J Mech and Mechatron Eng 2:90–96Google Scholar
  31. Sahoo PK, Das LM (2009) Combustion analysis of Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a diesel engine. Fuel 88:994–999.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2008.11.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sahoo BB, Sahoo N, Saha UK (2009) Effect of engine parameters and type of gaseous fuel on the performance of dual-fuel gas diesel engines – a critical review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 13:1151–1184.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2008.08.003
  33. Saravanan S, Nagarajan G, Narayana Rao GL (2009) Feasibility analysis of crude rice bran oil methyl ester blend as a stationary and automotive diesel engine fuel. Energy Sustain Dev 13:52–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2009.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sassykova L, Gil’Mundinov S, Nalibayeva A, Bogdanova I (2017) Catalytic systems on metal block carriers for neutralization of exhaust gases of motor transport. Revue Roumaina de Chimie 62:107–114Google Scholar
  35. Shahir SA, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA et al (2014) Feasibility of diesel-biodiesel-ethanol/bioethanol blend as existing CI engine fuel: an assessment of properties, material compatibility, safety and combustion. Renew Sust Energ Rev 32:379–395.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.029
  36. Srivastava A, Prasad R (2000) Triglycerides-based diesel fuels. Renew Sust Energ Rev 4:111–133.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-0321(99)00013-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stratakis GA, Stamatelos AM (2003) Thermogravimetric analysis of soot emitted by a modern diesel engine run on catalyst-doped fuel. Combust Flame 132:157–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-2180(02)00432-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tzimas E, Mercier A, Cormos CC, Peteves SD (2007) Trade-off in emissions of acid gas pollutants and of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture. Energ Policy 35:3991–3998.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.01.027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Valente OS, Da Silva MJ, Pasa VMD et al (2010) Fuel consumption and emissions from a diesel power generator fuelled with castor oil and soybean biodiesel. Fuel 89:3637–3642.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.07.041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vasudevan PT, Briggs M (2008) Biodiesel production – current state of the art and challenges. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 35:421.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-008-0312-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wu F, Wang J, Chen W, Shuai S (2009) A study on emission performance of a diesel engine fueled with five typical methyl ester biodiesels. Atmos Environ 43:1481–1485.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.12.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yoon SH, Lee CS (2011) Experimental investigation on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of biogas-biodiesel dual-fuel combustion in a CI engine. Fuel Process Technol 92:992–1000.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.12.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yusop AF, Mamat R, Yasin MHM, Ali OM (2014) Effects of particulate matter emissions of diesel engine using diesel–methanol blends. J Mech Eng Sci (JMES) 6:959–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang ZH, Balasubramanian R (2015) Effects of oxygenated fuel blends on carbonaceous particulate composition and particle size distributions from a stationary diesel engine. Fuel 141:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.10.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringDr. M.G.R Educational and Research Institute, UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department Automobile EngineeringRajalakshmi Engineering CollegeChennaiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations