Cut and Cover
Bottom-up tunneling; Cut and cover tunneling; Shallow-depth tunneling
Cut and cover is a tunnel construction technique, preferred at a shallow depth, in which excavation can be economically performed from the surface and the trench is subsequently covered with backfill after installation of all components for tunnel structures.
The excavatability and strength characteristics of the ground surrounding the tunnel, in situ stresses, depth of groundwater, length and diameter of tunnel, main purpose of tunnel, and particularly the depth of the designed tunnel are important controlling factors on selecting the most appropriate tunnel construction method. Generally, tunnels are classified into three different groups based on construction technique. These are (1) cut and cover tunnel known as an advanced engineering technique mainly for tunnel construction in urban and interurban areas (Mouratidis 2008); (2) bored tunnel, which is usually excavated in a...
- Mouratidis A (2008) The “cut-and-cover” and “cover-and-cut” techniques in highway engineering. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (EJGE) 13, Bundle F, pp 1–15Google Scholar
- Wickham GE, Tiedemann HR (1976) Cut and cover tunneling, Vol. 1. Construction methods, design and activity variations. Federal Highway Administration Offices of Research and Development, Washington, D.C. Report No. FHWA-RD-76-28, 201 pGoogle Scholar